Short Sale, Foreclosure and Strategic Default

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Thursday, February 4, 2010

California foreclosure law CC 2924 et sq.

WAIS Document Retrieval
CALIFORNIA CODES CIVIL CODE SECTION 2920-2944.7 2920. (a) A mortgage is a contract by which specific property, including an estate for years in real property, is hypothecated for the performance of an act, without the necessity of a change of possession. (b) For purposes of Sections 2924 to 2924h, inclusive, "mortgage" also means any security device or instrument, other than a deed of trust, that confers a power of sale affecting real property or an estate for years therein, to be exercised after breach of the obligation so secured, including a real property sales contract, as defined in Section 2985, which contains such a provision. 2921. A mortgage may be created upon property held adversely to the mortgagor. 2922. A mortgage can be created, renewed, or extended, only by writing, executed with the formalities required in the case of a grant of real property. 2923. The lien of a mortgage is special, unless otherwise expressly agreed, and is independent of possession. 2923.1. (a) A mortgage broker providing mortgage brokerage services to a borrower is the fiduciary of the borrower, and any violation of the broker's fiduciary duties shall be a violation of the mortgage broker's license law. This fiduciary duty includes a requirement that the mortgage broker place the economic interest of the borrower ahead of his or her own economic interest. A mortgage broker who provides mortgage brokerage services to the borrower owes this fiduciary duty to the borrower regardless of whether the mortgage broker is acting as an agent for any other party in connection with the residential mortgage loan transaction. (b) For purposes of this section, the following definitions apply: (1) "Licensed person" means a real estate broker licensed under the Real Estate Law (Part 1 (commencing with Section 10000) of Division 4 of the Business and Professions Code), a finance lender or broker licensed under the California Finance Lenders Law (Division 9 (commencing with Section 22000) of the Financial Code), a residential mortgage lender licensed under the California Residential Mortgage Lending Act (Division 20 (commencing with Section 50000) of the Financial Code), a commercial or industrial bank organized under the Banking Law (Division 1 (commencing with Section 99) of the Financial Code), a savings association organized under the Savings Association Law (Division 2 (commencing with Section 5000) of the Financial Code), and a credit union organized under the California Credit Union Law (Division 5 (commencing with Section 14000) of the Financial Code). (2) "Mortgage broker" means a licensed person who provides mortgage brokerage services. For purposes of this section, a licensed person who makes a residential mortgage loan is a "mortgage broker," and subject to the requirements of this section applicable to mortgage brokers, only with respect to transactions in which the licensed person provides mortgage brokerage services. (3) "Mortgage brokerage services" means arranging or attempting to arrange, as exclusive agent for the borrower or as dual agent for the borrower and lender, for compensation or in expectation of compensation, paid directly or indirectly, a residential mortgage loan made by an unaffiliated third party. (4) "Residential mortgage loan" means a consumer credit transaction that is secured by residential real property that is improved by four or fewer residential units. (c) The duties set forth in this section shall not be construed to limit or narrow any other fiduciary duty of a mortgage broker. 2923.5. (a) (1) A mortgagee, trustee, beneficiary, or authorized agent may not file a notice of default pursuant to Section 2924 until 30 days after initial contact is made as required by paragraph (2) or 30 days after satisfying the due diligence requirements as described in subdivision (g). (2) A mortgagee, beneficiary, or authorized agent shall contact the borrower in person or by telephone in order to assess the borrower's financial situation and explore options for the borrower to avoid foreclosure. During the initial contact, the mortgagee, beneficiary, or authorized agent shall advise the borrower that he or she has the right to request a subsequent meeting and, if requested, the mortgagee, beneficiary, or authorized agent shall schedule the meeting to occur within 14 days. The assessment of the borrower's financial situation and discussion of options may occur during the first contact, or at the subsequent meeting scheduled for that purpose. In either case, the borrower shall be provided the toll-free telephone number made available by the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) to find a HUD-certified housing counseling agency. Any meeting may occur telephonically. (b) A notice of default filed pursuant to Section 2924 shall include a declaration that the mortgagee, beneficiary, or authorized agent has contacted the borrower, has tried with due diligence to contact the borrower as required by this section, or that no contact was required pursuant to subdivision (h). (c) If a mortgagee, trustee, beneficiary, or authorized agent had already filed the notice of default prior to the enactment of this section and did not subsequently file a notice of rescission, then the mortgagee, trustee, beneficiary, or authorized agent shall, as part of the notice of sale filed pursuant to Section 2924f, include a declaration that either: (1) States that the borrower was contacted to assess the borrower' s financial situation and to explore options for the borrower to avoid foreclosure. (2) Lists the efforts made, if any, to contact the borrower in the event no contact was made. (d) A mortgagee's, beneficiary's, or authorized agent's loss mitigation personnel may participate by telephone during any contact required by this section. (e) For purposes of this section, a "borrower" shall include a mortgagor or trustor. (f) A borrower may designate, with consent given in writing, a HUD-certified housing counseling agency, attorney, or other advisor to discuss with the mortgagee, beneficiary, or authorized agent, on the borrower's behalf, the borrowers financial situation and options for the borrower to avoid foreclosure. That contact made at the direction of the borrower shall satisfy the contact requirements of paragraph (2) of subdivision (a). Any loan modification or workout plan offered at the meeting by the mortgagee, beneficiary, or authorized agent is subject to approval by the borrower. (g) A notice of default may be filed pursuant to Section 2924 when a mortgagee, beneficiary, or authorized agent has not contacted a borrower as required by paragraph (2) of subdivision (a) provided that the failure to contact the borrower occurred despite the due diligence of the mortgagee, beneficiary, or authorized agent. For purposes of this section, "due diligence" shall require and mean all of the following: (1) A mortgagee, beneficiary, or authorized agent shall first attempt to contact a borrower by sending a first-class letter that includes the toll-free telephone number made available by HUD to find a HUD-certified housing counseling agency. (2) (A) After the letter has been sent, the mortgagee, beneficiary, or authorized agent shall attempt to contact the borrower by telephone at least three times at different hours and on different days. Telephone calls shall be made to the primary telephone number on file. (B) A mortgagee, beneficiary, or authorized agent may attempt to contact a borrower using an automated system to dial borrowers, provided that, if the telephone call is answered, the call is connected to a live representative of the mortgagee, beneficiary, or authorized agent. (C) A mortgagee, beneficiary, or authorized agent satisfies the telephone contact requirements of this paragraph if it determines, after attempting contact pursuant to this paragraph, that the borrower's primary telephone number and secondary telephone number or numbers on file, if any, have been disconnected. (3) If the borrower does not respond within two weeks after the telephone call requirements of paragraph (2) have been satisfied, the mortgagee, beneficiary, or authorized agent shall then send a certified letter, with return receipt requested. (4) The mortgagee, beneficiary, or authorized agent shall provide a means for the borrower to contact it in a timely manner, including a toll-free telephone number that will provide access to a live representative during business hours. (5) The mortgagee, beneficiary, or authorized agent has posted a prominent link on the homepage of its Internet Web site, if any, to the following information: (A) Options that may be available to borrowers who are unable to afford their mortgage payments and who wish to avoid foreclosure, and instructions to borrowers advising them on steps to take to explore those options. (B) A list of financial documents borrowers should collect and be prepared to present to the mortgagee, beneficiary, or authorized agent when discussing options for avoiding foreclosure. (C) A toll-free telephone number for borrowers who wish to discuss options for avoiding foreclosure with their mortgagee, beneficiary, or authorized agent. (D) The toll-free telephone number made available by HUD to find a HUD-certified housing counseling agency. (h) Subdivisions (a), (c), and (g) shall not apply if any of the following occurs: (1) The borrower has surrendered the property as evidenced by either a letter confirming the surrender or delivery of the keys to the property to the mortgagee, trustee, beneficiary, or authorized agent. (2) The borrower has contracted with an organization, person, or entity whose primary business is advising people who have decided to leave their homes on how to extend the foreclosure process and avoid their contractual obligations to mortgagees or beneficiaries. (3) A case has been filed by the borrower under Chapter 7, 11, 12, or 13 of Title 11 of the United States Code and the bankruptcy court has not entered an order closing or dismissing the bankruptcy case, or granting relief from a stay of foreclosure. (i) This section shall apply only to mortgages or deeds of trust recorded from January 1, 2003, to December 31, 2007, inclusive, that are secured by owner-occupied residential real property containing no more than four dwelling units. For purposes of this subdivision, "owner-occupied" means that the residence is the principal residence of the borrower as indicated to the lender in loan documents. (j) This section shall remain in effect only until January 1, 2013, and as of that date is repealed, unless a later enacted statute, that is enacted before January 1, 2013, deletes or extends that date. 2923.52. (a) Notwithstanding paragraph (3) of subdivision (a) of Section 2924, a mortgagee, trustee, or other person authorized to take sale shall not give notice of sale until at least 90 days after the lapse of three months as set forth in paragraph (2) of subdivision (a) of Section 2924, in order to allow the parties to pursue a loan modification to prevent foreclosure, if all of the following conditions exist: (1) The loan was recorded during the period of January 1, 2003, to January 1, 2008, inclusive, and is secured by residential real property. (2) The loan at issue is the first mortgage or deed of trust that the property secures. (3) The borrower occupied the property as the borrower's principal residence at the time the loan became delinquent. (4) The notice of default has been recorded on the property. (b) This section does not apply to loans serviced by a mortgage loan servicer if that mortgage loan servicer has obtained a temporary or final order of exemption pursuant to Section 2923.53 that is current and valid at the time the notice of sale is given. (c) This section does not apply to loans made, purchased, or serviced by: (1) A California state or local public housing agency or authority, including state or local housing finance agencies established under Division 31 (commencing with Section 50000) of the Health and Safety Code and Chapter 6 (commencing with Section 980) of Division 4 of the Military and Veterans Code. (2) Loans that are collateral for securities purchased by an agency or authority described in paragraph (1). (d) This section shall become operative 14 days after the issuance of regulations, which shall include the form of the application for mortgage loan servicers, by the commissioner pursuant to subdivision (d) of Section 2923.53.(e) This section shall remain in effect only until January 1, 2011, and as of that date is repealed, unless a later enacted statute, that is enacted before January 1, 2011, deletes or extends that date. 2923.52. (a) Notwithstanding paragraph (3) of subdivision (a) of Section 2924, a mortgagee, trustee, or other person authorized to take sale shall not give notice of sale until at least 90 days after the lapse of three months as set forth in paragraph (2) of subdivision (a) of Section 2924, in order to allow the parties to pursue a loan modification to prevent foreclosure, if all of the following conditions exist: (1) The loan was recorded during the period of January 1, 2003, to January 1, 2008, inclusive, and is secured by residential real property. (2) The loan at issue is the first mortgage or deed of trust that the property secures. (3) The borrower occupied the property as the borrower's principal residence at the time the loan became delinquent. (4) The notice of default has been recorded on the property. (b) This section does not apply to loans serviced by a mortgage loan servicer if that mortgage loan servicer has obtained a temporary or final order of exemption pursuant to Section 2923.53 that is current and valid at the time the notice of sale is given. (c) This section does not apply to loans made, purchased, or serviced by: (1) A California state or local public housing agency or authority, including state or local housing finance agencies established under Division 31 (commencing with Section 50000) of the Health and Safety Code and Chapter 6 (commencing with Section 980) of Division 4 of the Military and Veterans Code. (2) Loans that are collateral for securities purchased by an agency or authority described in paragraph (1). (d) This section shall become operative 14 days after the issuance of regulations, which shall include the form of the application for mortgage loan servicers, by the commissioner pursuant to subdivision (d) of Section 2923.53.(e) This section shall remain in effect only until January 1, 2011, and as of that date is repealed, unless a later enacted statute, that is enacted before January 1, 2011, deletes or extends that date. 2923.53. (a) A mortgage loan servicer that has implemented a comprehensive loan modification program that meets the requirements of this section shall have the loans that it services exempted from the provisions of Section 2923.52, upon order of the commissioner. A comprehensive loan modification program shall include all of the following features: (1) The loan modification program is intended to keep borrowers whose principal residences are homes located in California in those homes when the anticipated recovery under the loan modification or workout plan exceeds the anticipated recovery through foreclosure on a net present value basis. (2) The loan modification program targets a ratio of the borrower' s housing-related debt to the borrower's gross income of 38 percent or less, on an aggregate basis in the program. (3) The loan modification program includes some combination of the following features: (A) An interest rate reduction, as needed, for a fixed term of at least five years. (B) An extension of the amortization period for the loan term, to no more than 40 years from the original date of the loan. (C) Deferral of some portion of the principal amount of the unpaid principal balance until maturity of the loan. (D) Reduction of principal. (E) Compliance with a federally mandated loan modification program. (F) Other factors that the commissioner determines are appropriate. In determining those factors, the commissioner may consider efforts implemented in other jurisdictions that have resulted in a reduction in foreclosures. (4) When determining a loan modification solution for a borrower under the loan modification program, the servicer seeks to achieve long-term sustainability for the borrower. (b) (1) A mortgage loan servicer may apply to the commissioner for an order exempting loans that it services from Section 2923.52. If the mortgage loan servicer elects to apply for an order, the application shall be in the form and manner determined by the commissioner. (2) Upon receipt of an initial application for exemption under this section, the commissioner shall immediately notify the applicant of the date of receipt of the application and shall issue a temporary order, effective from that date of receipt, exempting the mortgage loan servicer from the provisions of subdivision (a) of Section 2923.52. The temporary order shall remain in effect until a final order has been issued by the commissioner pursuant to paragraph (3). If the initial application for exemption is denied pursuant to paragraph (3), the temporary order shall remain in effect for 30 days after the date of denial. (3) Within 30 days of receipt of an initial or revised application, the commissioner shall make a final determination on whether the application meets the criteria of subdivision (a). If, after review of the application, the commissioner concludes that the mortgage loan servicer has a comprehensive loan modification program that meets the requirements of subdivision (a), the commissioner shall issue a final order exempting the mortgage loan servicer from the requirements of Section 2923.52. If the commissioner concludes that the loan modification program does not meet the requirements of subdivision (a), the application for exemption shall be denied and a final order shall not be issued. (4) A mortgage loan servicer may submit a revised application if its application for exemption is denied. (c) The commissioner may revoke a final order, upon reasonable notice and an opportunity to be heard, if the mortgage loan servicer has submitted a materially false or misleading application or if the approved loan modification program has been materially altered from the loan modification program on which the exemption was based. A revocation by the commissioner shall not be retroactive. (d) The commissioner shall adopt, no later than 10 days after the date this section takes effect, emergency and final regulations to clarify the application of this section and Section 2923.52, including the creation of the application for mortgage loan servicers and requirements regarding the reporting of loan modification data by mortgage loan servicers. (e) Three months after the first exemption is issued pursuant to subdivision (b) by order of any commissioner specified in paragraph (1) of subdivision (j), the Secretary of Business, Transportation and Housing shall submit a report to the Legislature regarding the details of the actions taken to implement this section and the numbers of applications received and orders issued. The secretary shall submit an additional report six months from the date of the submission of the first report and every six months thereafter. Within existing resources, the commissioners shall collect, from some or all mortgage loan servicers, data regarding loan modifications accomplished pursuant to this section and shall make the data available on an Internet Web site at least quarterly. (f) The Secretary of Business, Transportation and Housing shall maintain on an Internet Web site a publicly available list disclosing the final orders granting exemptions, the date of each order, and a link to Internet Web sites describing the loan modification programs. (g) Until January 1, 2010, the commissioner is authorized to contract for goods and services necessary to implement the provisions of this section and Section 2923.52, and any such contract shall be exempt from Chapter 2 (commencing with Section 10290) of Part 2 of Division 2 of the Public Contract Code. Not less than 30 days prior to awarding any contract under this section, the commissioner shall provide the pending contract documents to the Joint Legislative Budget Committee. (h) Any person who violates any provision of this section or Section 2923.52 shall be deemed to have violated his or her license law as it relates to these provisions. (i) Nothing in this section or Section 2923.52 shall require a servicer to violate contractual agreements for investor-owned loans or provide a modification to a borrower who is not willing or able to pay under the modification. (j) The submission of an application for an exemption under this section, the reliance upon such an exemption, or the provision to the commissioner of data related to the loan modification program shall not confer on the commissioner visitorial authority over a federally chartered financial institution. Nothing in this subdivision is intended to affect the authority of the commissioner over a federally chartered financial institution pursuant to federal law or regulation. (k) For purposes of this section and Sections 2923.52 and 2923.54: (1) "Commissioner" means any of the following: (A) The Commissioner of Corporations for licensed residential mortgage lenders and servicers and licensed finance lenders and brokers servicing mortgage loans and any other entities servicing mortgage loans that are not described in subparagraph (B) or (C). (B) The Commissioner of Financial Institutions for commercial and industrial banks and savings associations and credit unions organized in this state servicing mortgage loans. (C) The Real Estate Commissioner for licensed real estate brokers servicing mortgage loans. (2) "Housing-related debt" means debt that includes loan principal, interest, property taxes, hazard insurance, flood insurance, mortgage insurance, and homeowner association fees. (3) "Mortgage loan servicer" means a person or entity that receives or has the right to receive installment payments of principal, interest, or other amounts placed in escrow, pursuant to the terms of a mortgage loan or deed of trust, and performs services relating to that receipt or enforcement as the holder of the note or on behalf of the holder of the note evidencing that loan.(l) This section shall remain in effect only until January 1, 2011, and as of that date is repealed, unless a later enacted statute, that is enacted before January 1, 2011, deletes or extends that date. 2923.53. (a) A mortgage loan servicer that has implemented a comprehensive loan modification program that meets the requirements of this section shall have the loans that it services exempted from the provisions of Section 2923.52, upon order of the commissioner. A comprehensive loan modification program shall include all of the following features: (1) The loan modification program is intended to keep borrowers whose principal residences are homes located in California in those homes when the anticipated recovery under the loan modification or workout plan exceeds the anticipated recovery through foreclosure on a net present value basis. (2) The loan modification program targets a ratio of the borrower' s housing-related debt to the borrower's gross income of 38 percent or less, on an aggregate basis in the program. (3) The loan modification program includes some combination of the following features: (A) An interest rate reduction, as needed, for a fixed term of at least five years. (B) An extension of the amortization period for the loan term, to no more than 40 years from the original date of the loan. (C) Deferral of some portion of the principal amount of the unpaid principal balance until maturity of the loan. (D) Reduction of principal. (E) Compliance with a federally mandated loan modification program. (F) Other factors that the commissioner determines are appropriate. In determining those factors, the commissioner may consider efforts implemented in other jurisdictions that have resulted in a reduction in foreclosures. (4) When determining a loan modification solution for a borrower under the loan modification program, the servicer seeks to achieve long-term sustainability for the borrower. (b) (1) A mortgage loan servicer may apply to the commissioner for an order exempting loans that it services from Section 2923.52. If the mortgage loan servicer elects to apply for an order, the application shall be in the form and manner determined by the commissioner. (2) Upon receipt of an initial application for exemption under this section, the commissioner shall immediately notify the applicant of the date of receipt of the application and shall issue a temporary order, effective from that date of receipt, exempting the mortgage loan servicer from the provisions of subdivision (a) of Section 2923.52. The temporary order shall remain in effect until a final order has been issued by the commissioner pursuant to paragraph (3). If the initial application for exemption is denied pursuant to paragraph (3), the temporary order shall remain in effect for 30 days after the date of denial. (3) Within 30 days of receipt of an initial or revised application, the commissioner shall make a final determination on whether the application meets the criteria of subdivision (a). If, after review of the application, the commissioner concludes that the mortgage loan servicer has a comprehensive loan modification program that meets the requirements of subdivision (a), the commissioner shall issue a final order exempting the mortgage loan servicer from the requirements of Section 2923.52. If the commissioner concludes that the loan modification program does not meet the requirements of subdivision (a), the application for exemption shall be denied and a final order shall not be issued. (4) A mortgage loan servicer may submit a revised application if its application for exemption is denied. (c) The commissioner may revoke a final order, upon reasonable notice and an opportunity to be heard, if the mortgage loan servicer has submitted a materially false or misleading application or if the approved loan modification program has been materially altered from the loan modification program on which the exemption was based. A revocation by the commissioner shall not be retroactive. (d) The commissioner shall adopt, no later than 10 days after the date this section takes effect, emergency and final regulations to clarify the application of this section and Section 2923.52, including the creation of the application for mortgage loan servicers and requirements regarding the reporting of loan modification data by mortgage loan servicers. (e) Three months after the first exemption is issued pursuant to subdivision (b) by order of any commissioner specified in paragraph (1) of subdivision (j), the Secretary of Business, Transportation and Housing shall submit a report to the Legislature regarding the details of the actions taken to implement this section and the numbers of applications received and orders issued. The secretary shall submit an additional report six months from the date of the submission of the first report and every six months thereafter. Within existing resources, the commissioners shall collect, from some or all mortgage loan servicers, data regarding loan modifications accomplished pursuant to this section and shall make the data available on an Internet Web site at least quarterly. (f) The Secretary of Business, Transportation and Housing shall maintain on an Internet Web site a publicly available list disclosing the final orders granting exemptions, the date of each order, and a link to Internet Web sites describing the loan modification programs. (g) Until January 1, 2010, the commissioner is authorized to contract for goods and services necessary to implement the provisions of this section and Section 2923.52, and any such contract shall be exempt from Chapter 2 (commencing with Section 10290) of Part 2 of Division 2 of the Public Contract Code. Not less than 30 days prior to awarding any contract under this section, the commissioner shall provide the pending contract documents to the Joint Legislative Budget Committee. (h) Any person who violates any provision of this section or Section 2923.52 shall be deemed to have violated his or her license law as it relates to these provisions. (i) Nothing in this section or Section 2923.52 shall require a servicer to violate contractual agreements for investor-owned loans or provide a modification to a borrower who is not willing or able to pay under the modification. (j) The submission of an application for an exemption under this section, the reliance upon such an exemption, or the provision to the commissioner of data related to the loan modification program shall not confer on the commissioner visitorial authority over a federally chartered financial institution. Nothing in this subdivision is intended to affect the authority of the commissioner over a federally chartered financial institution pursuant to federal law or regulation. (k) For purposes of this section and Sections 2923.52 and 2923.54: (1) "Commissioner" means any of the following: (A) The Commissioner of Corporations for licensed residential mortgage lenders and servicers and licensed finance lenders and brokers servicing mortgage loans and any other entities servicing mortgage loans that are not described in subparagraph (B) or (C). (B) The Commissioner of Financial Institutions for commercial and industrial banks and savings associations and credit unions organized in this state servicing mortgage loans. (C) The Real Estate Commissioner for licensed real estate brokers servicing mortgage loans. (2) "Housing-related debt" means debt that includes loan principal, interest, property taxes, hazard insurance, flood insurance, mortgage insurance, and homeowner association fees. (3) "Mortgage loan servicer" means a person or entity that receives or has the right to receive installment payments of principal, interest, or other amounts placed in escrow, pursuant to the terms of a mortgage loan or deed of trust, and performs services relating to that receipt or enforcement as the holder of the note or on behalf of the holder of the note evidencing that loan.(l) This section shall remain in effect only until January 1, 2011, and as of that date is repealed, unless a later enacted statute, that is enacted before January 1, 2011, deletes or extends that date. 2923.54. (a) A notice of sale filed pursuant to Section 2924f shall include a declaration from the mortgage loan servicer stating both of the following: (1) Whether or not the mortgage loan servicer has obtained from the commissioner a final or temporary order of exemption pursuant to Section 2923.53 that is current and valid on the date the notice of sale is filed. (2) Whether the timeframe for giving notice of sale specified in subdivision (a) of Section 2923.52 does not apply pursuant to Section 2923.52 or 2923.55. (b) Failure to comply with Section 2923.52 or 2923.53 shall not invalidate any sale that would otherwise be valid under Section 2924f.(c) This section shall remain in effect only until January 1, 2011, and as of that date is repealed, unless a later enacted statute, that is enacted before January 1, 2011, deletes or extends that date. 2923.54. (a) A notice of sale filed pursuant to Section 2924f shall include a declaration from the mortgage loan servicer stating both of the following: (1) Whether or not the mortgage loan servicer has obtained from the commissioner a final or temporary order of exemption pursuant to Section 2923.53 that is current and valid on the date the notice of sale is filed. (2) Whether the timeframe for giving notice of sale specified in subdivision (a) of Section 2923.52 does not apply pursuant to Section 2923.52 or 2923.55. (b) Failure to comply with Section 2923.52 or 2923.53 shall not invalidate any sale that would otherwise be valid under Section 2924f.(c) This section shall remain in effect only until January 1, 2011, and as of that date is repealed, unless a later enacted statute, that is enacted before January 1, 2011, deletes or extends that date. 2923.55. Section 2923.52 shall not apply if any of the following occurs: (a) The borrower has surrendered the property, as evidenced by either a letter confirming the surrender or delivery of the keys to the property to the mortgagee, trustee, beneficiary, or authorized agent. (b) The borrower has contracted with an organization, person, or entity whose primary business is advising people who have decided to leave their homes regarding how to extend the foreclosure process and avoid their contractual obligations to mortgagees or beneficiaries. (c) A case has been filed by the borrower under Chapter 7, 11, 12, or 13 of Title 11 of the United States Code, and the bankruptcy court has not entered an order closing or dismissing the bankruptcy case or granting relief from a stay of foreclosure.(d) This section shall remain in effect only until January 1, 2011, and as of that date is repealed, unless a later enacted statute, that is enacted before January 1, 2011, deletes or extends that date. 2923.55. Section 2923.52 shall not apply if any of the following occurs: (a) The borrower has surrendered the property, as evidenced by either a letter confirming the surrender or delivery of the keys to the property to the mortgagee, trustee, beneficiary, or authorized agent. (b) The borrower has contracted with an organization, person, or entity whose primary business is advising people who have decided to leave their homes regarding how to extend the foreclosure process and avoid their contractual obligations to mortgagees or beneficiaries. (c) A case has been filed by the borrower under Chapter 7, 11, 12, or 13 of Title 11 of the United States Code, and the bankruptcy court has not entered an order closing or dismissing the bankruptcy case or granting relief from a stay of foreclosure.(d) This section shall remain in effect only until January 1, 2011, and as of that date is repealed, unless a later enacted statute, that is enacted before January 1, 2011, deletes or extends that date. 2923.6. (a) The Legislature finds and declares that any duty servicers may have to maximize net present value under their pooling and servicing agreements is owed to all parties in a loan pool, or to all investors under a pooling and servicing agreement, not to any particular party in the loan pool or investor under a polling and servicing agreement, and that a servicer acts in the best interests of all parties to the loan pool or investors in the pooling and servicing agreement if it agrees to or implements a loan modification or workout plan for which both of the following apply: (1) The loan is in payment default, or payment default is reasonably foreseeable. (2) Anticipated recovery under the loan modification or workout plan exceeds the anticipated recovery through foreclosure on a net present value basis. (b) It is the intent of the Legislature that the mortgagee, beneficiary, or authorized agent offer the borrower a loan modification or workout plan if such a modification or plan is consistent with its contractual or other authority. (c) This section shall remain in effect only until January 1, 2013, and as of that date is repealed, unless a later enacted statute, that is enacted before January 1, 2013, deletes or extends that date. 2924. (a) Every transfer of an interest in property, other than in trust, made only as a security for the performance of another act, is to be deemed a mortgage, except when in the case of personal property it is accompanied by actual change of possession, in which case it is to be deemed a pledge. Where, by a mortgage created after July 27, 1917, of any estate in real property, other than an estate at will or for years, less than two, or in any transfer in trust made after July 27, 1917, of a like estate to secure the performance of an obligation, a power of sale is conferred upon the mortgagee, trustee, or any other person, to be exercised after a breach of the obligation for which that mortgage or transfer is a security, the power shall not be exercised except where the mortgage or transfer is made pursuant to an order, judgment, or decree of a court of record, or to secure the payment of bonds or other evidences of indebtedness authorized or permitted to be issued by the Commissioner of Corporations, or is made by a public utility subject to the provisions of the Public Utilities Act, until all of the following apply: (1) The trustee, mortgagee, or beneficiary, or any of their authorized agents shall first file for record, in the office of the recorder of each county wherein the mortgaged or trust property or some part or parcel thereof is situated, a notice of default. That notice of default shall include all of the following: (A) A statement identifying the mortgage or deed of trust by stating the name or names of the trustor or trustors and giving the book and page, or instrument number, if applicable, where the mortgage or deed of trust is recorded or a description of the mortgaged or trust property. (B) A statement that a breach of the obligation for which the mortgage or transfer in trust is security has occurred. (C) A statement setting forth the nature of each breach actually known to the beneficiary and of his or her election to sell or cause to be sold the property to satisfy that obligation and any other obligation secured by the deed of trust or mortgage that is in default. (D) If the default is curable pursuant to Section 2924c, the statement specified in paragraph (1) of subdivision (b) of Section 2924c. (2) Not less than three months shall elapse from the filing of the notice of default. (3) Except as provided in Section 2923.52, after the lapse of the three months described in paragraph (2), the mortgagee, trustee or other person authorized to take the sale shall give notice of sale, stating the time and place thereof, in the manner and for a time not less than that set forth in Section 2924f. (b) In performing acts required by this article, the trustee shall incur no liability for any good faith error resulting from reliance on information provided in good faith by the beneficiary regarding the nature and the amount of the default under the secured obligation, deed of trust, or mortgage. In performing the acts required by this article, a trustee shall not be subject to Title 1.6c (commencing with Section 1788) of Part 4. (c) A recital in the deed executed pursuant to the power of sale of compliance with all requirements of law regarding the mailing of copies of notices or the publication of a copy of the notice of default or the personal delivery of the copy of the notice of default or the posting of copies of the notice of sale or the publication of a copy thereof shall constitute prima facie evidence of compliance with these requirements and conclusive evidence thereof in favor of bona fide purchasers and encumbrancers for value and without notice. (d) All of the following shall constitute privileged communications pursuant to Section 47: (1) The mailing, publication, and delivery of notices as required by this section. (2) Performance of the procedures set forth in this article. (3) Performance of the functions and procedures set forth in this article if those functions and procedures are necessary to carry out the duties described in Sections 729.040, 729.050, and 729.080 of the Code of Civil Procedure. (e) There is a rebuttable presumption that the beneficiary actually knew of all unpaid loan payments on the obligation owed to the beneficiary and secured by the deed of trust or mortgage subject to the notice of default. However, the failure to include an actually known default shall not invalidate the notice of sale and the beneficiary shall not be precluded from asserting a claim to this omitted default or defaults in a separate notice of default.(f) This section shall remain in effect only until January 1, 2011, and as of that date is repealed, unless a later enacted statute, that is enacted before January 1, 2011, deletes or extends that date. 2924. (a) Every transfer of an interest in property, other than in trust, made only as a security for the performance of another act, is to be deemed a mortgage, except when in the case of personal property it is accompanied by actual change of possession, in which case it is to be deemed a pledge. Where, by a mortgage created after July 27, 1917, of any estate in real property, other than an estate at will or for years, less than two, or in any transfer in trust made after July 27, 1917, of a like estate to secure the performance of an obligation, a power of sale is conferred upon the mortgagee, trustee, or any other person, to be exercised after a breach of the obligation for which that mortgage or transfer is a security, the power shall not be exercised except where the mortgage or transfer is made pursuant to an order, judgment, or decree of a court of record, or to secure the payment of bonds or other evidences of indebtedness authorized or permitted to be issued by the Commissioner of Corporations, or is made by a public utility subject to the provisions of the Public Utilities Act, until all of the following apply: (1) The trustee, mortgagee, or beneficiary, or any of their authorized agents shall first file for record, in the office of the recorder of each county wherein the mortgaged or trust property or some part or parcel thereof is situated, a notice of default. That notice of default shall include all of the following: (A) A statement identifying the mortgage or deed of trust by stating the name or names of the trustor or trustors and giving the book and page, or instrument number, if applicable, where the mortgage or deed of trust is recorded or a description of the mortgaged or trust property. (B) A statement that a breach of the obligation for which the mortgage or transfer in trust is security has occurred. (C) A statement setting forth the nature of each breach actually known to the beneficiary and of his or her election to sell or cause to be sold the property to satisfy that obligation and any other obligation secured by the deed of trust or mortgage that is in default. (D) If the default is curable pursuant to Section 2924c, the statement specified in paragraph (1) of subdivision (b) of Section 2924c. (2) Not less than three months shall elapse from the filing of the notice of default. (3) After the lapse of the three months described in paragraph (2), the mortgagee, trustee, or other person authorized to take the sale shall give notice of sale, stating the time and place thereof, in the manner and for a time not less than that set forth in Section 2924f. (b) In performing acts required by this article, the trustee shall incur no liability for any good faith error resulting from reliance on information provided in good faith by the beneficiary regarding the nature and the amount of the default under the secured obligation, deed of trust, or mortgage. In performing the acts required by this article, a trustee shall not be subject to Title 1.6c (commencing with Section 1788) of Part 4. (c) A recital in the deed executed pursuant to the power of sale of compliance with all requirements of law regarding the mailing of copies of notices or the publication of a copy of the notice of default or the personal delivery of the copy of the notice of default or the posting of copies of the notice of sale or the publication of a copy thereof shall constitute prima facie evidence of compliance with these requirements and conclusive evidence thereof in favor of bona fide purchasers and encumbrancers for value and without notice. (d) All of the following shall constitute privileged communications pursuant to Section 47: (1) The mailing, publication, and delivery of notices as required by this section. (2) Performance of the procedures set forth in this article. (3) Performance of the functions and procedures set forth in this article if those functions and procedures are necessary to carry out the duties described in Sections 729.040, 729.050, and 729.080 of the Code of Civil Procedure. (e) There is a rebuttable presumption that the beneficiary actually knew of all unpaid loan payments on the obligation owed to the beneficiary and secured by the deed of trust or mortgage subject to the notice of default. However, the failure to include an actually known default shall not invalidate the notice of sale and the beneficiary shall not be precluded from asserting a claim to this omitted default or defaults in a separate notice of default. (f) This section shall become operative on January 1, 2011. 2924. (a) Every transfer of an interest in property, other than in trust, made only as a security for the performance of another act, is to be deemed a mortgage, except when in the case of personal property it is accompanied by actual change of possession, in which case it is to be deemed a pledge. Where, by a mortgage created after July 27, 1917, of any estate in real property, other than an estate at will or for years, less than two, or in any transfer in trust made after July 27, 1917, of a like estate to secure the performance of an obligation, a power of sale is conferred upon the mortgagee, trustee, or any other person, to be exercised after a breach of the obligation for which that mortgage or transfer is a security, the power shall not be exercised except where the mortgage or transfer is made pursuant to an order, judgment, or decree of a court of record, or to secure the payment of bonds or other evidences of indebtedness authorized or permitted to be issued by the Commissioner of Corporations, or is made by a public utility subject to the provisions of the Public Utilities Act, until all of the following apply: (1) The trustee, mortgagee, or beneficiary, or any of their authorized agents shall first file for record, in the office of the recorder of each county wherein the mortgaged or trust property or some part or parcel thereof is situated, a notice of default. That notice of default shall include all of the following: (A) A statement identifying the mortgage or deed of trust by stating the name or names of the trustor or trustors and giving the book and page, or instrument number, if applicable, where the mortgage or deed of trust is recorded or a description of the mortgaged or trust property. (B) A statement that a breach of the obligation for which the mortgage or transfer in trust is security has occurred. (C) A statement setting forth the nature of each breach actually known to the beneficiary and of his or her election to sell or cause to be sold the property to satisfy that obligation and any other obligation secured by the deed of trust or mortgage that is in default. (D) If the default is curable pursuant to Section 2924c, the statement specified in paragraph (1) of subdivision (b) of Section 2924c. (2) Not less than three months shall elapse from the filing of the notice of default. (3) After the lapse of the three months described in paragraph (2), the mortgagee, trustee, or other person authorized to take the sale shall give notice of sale, stating the time and place thereof, in the manner and for a time not less than that set forth in Section 2924f. (b) In performing acts required by this article, the trustee shall incur no liability for any good faith error resulting from reliance on information provided in good faith by the beneficiary regarding the nature and the amount of the default under the secured obligation, deed of trust, or mortgage. In performing the acts required by this article, a trustee shall not be subject to Title 1.6c (commencing with Section 1788) of Part 4. (c) A recital in the deed executed pursuant to the power of sale of compliance with all requirements of law regarding the mailing of copies of notices or the publication of a copy of the notice of default or the personal delivery of the copy of the notice of default or the posting of copies of the notice of sale or the publication of a copy thereof shall constitute prima facie evidence of compliance with these requirements and conclusive evidence thereof in favor of bona fide purchasers and encumbrancers for value and without notice. (d) All of the following shall constitute privileged communications pursuant to Section 47: (1) The mailing, publication, and delivery of notices as required by this section. (2) Performance of the procedures set forth in this article. (3) Performance of the functions and procedures set forth in this article if those functions and procedures are necessary to carry out the duties described in Sections 729.040, 729.050, and 729.080 of the Code of Civil Procedure. (e) There is a rebuttable presumption that the beneficiary actually knew of all unpaid loan payments on the obligation owed to the beneficiary and secured by the deed of trust or mortgage subject to the notice of default. However, the failure to include an actually known default shall not invalidate the notice of sale and the beneficiary shall not be precluded from asserting a claim to this omitted default or defaults in a separate notice of default. (f) This section shall become operative on January 1, 2011. 2924.3. (a) Except as provided in subdivisions (b) and (c), a person who has undertaken as an agent of a mortgagee, beneficiary, or owner of a promissory note secured directly or collaterally by a mortgage or deed of trust on real property or an estate for years therein, to make collections of payments from an obligor under the note, shall mail the following notices, postage prepaid, to each mortgagee, beneficiary or owner for whom the agent has agreed to make collections from the obligor under the note: (1) A copy of the notice of default filed in the office of the county recorder pursuant to Section 2924 on account of a breach of obligation under the promissory note on which the agent has agreed to make collections of payments, within 15 days after recordation. (2) Notice that a notice of default has been recorded pursuant to Section 2924 on account of a breach of an obligation secured by a mortgage or deed of trust against the same property or estate for years therein having priority over the mortgage or deed of trust securing the obligation described in paragraph (1), within 15 days after recordation or within three business days after the agent receives the information, whichever is later. (3) Notice of the time and place scheduled for the sale of the real property or estate for years therein pursuant to Section 2924f under a power of sale in a mortgage or deed of trust securing an obligation described in paragraphs (1) or (2), not less than 15 days before the scheduled date of the sale or not later than the next business day after the agent receives the information, whichever is later. (b) An agent who has undertaken to make collections on behalf of mortgagees, beneficiaries or owners of promissory notes secured by mortgages or deeds of trust on real property or an estate for years therein shall not be required to comply with the provisions of subdivision (a) with respect to a mortgagee, beneficiary or owner who is entitled to receive notice pursuant to subdivision (c) of Section 2924b or for whom a request for notice has been recorded pursuant to subdivision (b) of Section 2924b if the agent reasonably believes that the address of the mortgagee, beneficiary, or owner described in Section 2924b is the current business or residence address of that person. (c) An agent who has undertaken to make collections on behalf of mortgagees, beneficiaries or owners of promissory notes secured by mortgages or deeds of trust on real property or an estate for years therein shall not be required to comply with the provisions of paragraph (1) or (2) of subdivision (a) if the agent knows or reasonably believes that the default has already been cured by or on behalf of the obligor. (d) Any failure to comply with the provisions of this section shall not affect the validity of a sale in favor of a bona fide purchaser or the rights of an encumbrancer for value and without notice. 2924.5. No clause in any deed of trust or mortgage on property containing four or fewer residential units or on which four or fewer residential units are to be constructed or in any obligation secured by any deed of trust or mortgage on property containing four or fewer residential units or on which four or fewer residential units are to be constructed that provides for the acceleration of the due date of the obligation upon the sale, conveyance, alienation, lease, succession, assignment or other transfer of the property subject to the deed of trust or mortgage shall be valid unless the clause is set forth, in its entirety in both the body of the deed of trust or mortgage and the promissory note or other document evidencing the secured obligation. This section shall apply to all such deeds of trust, mortgages, and obligations secured thereby executed on or after July 1, 1972. 2924.6. (a) An obligee may not accelerate the maturity date of the principal and accrued interest on any loan secured by a mortgage or deed of trust on residential real property solely by reason of any one or more of the following transfers in the title to the real property: (1) A transfer resulting from the death of an obligor where the transfer is to the spouse who is also an obligor. (2) A transfer by an obligor where the spouse becomes a coowner of the property. (3) A transfer resulting from a decree of dissolution of the marriage or legal separation or from a property settlement agreement incidental to such a decree which requires the obligor to continue to make the loan payments by which a spouse who is an obligor becomes the sole owner of the property. (4) A transfer by an obligor or obligors into an inter vivos trust in which the obligor or obligors are beneficiaries. (5) Such real property or any portion thereof is made subject to a junior encumbrance or lien. (b) Any waiver of the provisions of this section by an obligor is void and unenforceable and is contrary to public policy. (c) For the purposes of this section, "residential real property" means any real property which contains at least one but not more than four housing units. (d) This act applies only to loans executed or refinanced on or after January 1, 1976. 2924.7. (a) The provisions of any deed of trust or mortgage on real property which authorize any beneficiary, trustee, mortgagee, or his or her agent or successor in interest, to accelerate the maturity date of the principal and interest on any loan secured thereby or to exercise any power of sale or other remedy contained therein upon the failure of the trustor or mortgagor to pay, at the times provided for under the terms of the deed of trust or mortgage, any taxes, rents, assessments, or insurance premiums with respect to the property or the loan, or any advances made by the beneficiary, mortgagee, or his or her agent or successor in interest shall be enforceable whether or not impairment of the security interest in the property has resulted from the failure of the trustor or mortgagor to pay the taxes, rents, assessments, insurance premiums, or advances. (b) The provisions of any deed of trust or mortgage on real property which authorize any beneficiary, trustee, mortgagee, or his or her agent or successor in interest, to receive and control the disbursement of the proceeds of any policy of fire, flood, or other hazard insurance respecting the property shall be enforceable whether or not impairment of the security interest in the property has resulted from the event that caused the proceeds of the insurance policy to become payable. 2924.8. (a) Upon posting a notice of sale pursuant to Section 2924f, a trustee or authorized agent shall also post the following notice, in the manner required for posting the notice of sale on the property to be sold, and a mortgagee, trustee, beneficiary, or authorized agent, concurrently with the mailing of the notice of sale pursuant to Section 2924b, shall send by first-class mail in an envelope addressed to the "Resident of property subject to foreclosure sale" the following notice in English and the languages described in Section 1632: "Foreclosure process has begun on this property, which may affect your right to continue to live in this property. Twenty days or more after the date of this notice, this property may be sold at foreclosure. If you are renting this property, the new property owner may either give you a new lease or rental agreement or provide you with a 60-day eviction notice. However, other laws may prohibit an eviction in this circumstance or provide you with a longer notice before eviction. You may wish to contact a lawyer or your local legal aid or housing counseling agency to discuss any rights you may have." (b) It shall be an infraction to tear down the notice described in subdivision (a) within 72 hours of posting. Violators shall be subject to a fine of one hundred dollars ($100). (c) A state government entity shall make available translations of the notice described in subdivision (a) which may be used by a mortgagee, trustee, beneficiary, or authorized agent to satisfy the requirements of this section. (d) This section shall only apply to loans secured by residential real property, and if the billing address for the mortgage note is different than the property address. (e) This section shall remain in effect only until January 1, 2013, and as of that date is repealed, unless a later enacted statute, that is enacted before January 1, 2013, deletes or extends that date. 2924a. If, by the terms of any trust or deed of trust a power of sale is conferred upon the trustee, the attorney for the trustee, or any duly authorized agent, may conduct the sale and act in the sale as the auctioneer for the trustee. 2924b. (a) Any person desiring a copy of any notice of default and of any notice of sale under any deed of trust or mortgage with power of sale upon real property or an estate for years therein, as to which deed of trust or mortgage the power of sale cannot be exercised until these notices are given for the time and in the manner provided in Section 2924 may, at any time subsequent to recordation of the deed of trust or mortgage and prior to recordation of notice of default thereunder, cause to be filed for record in the office of the recorder of any county in which any part or parcel of the real property is situated, a duly acknowledged request for a copy of the notice of default and of sale. This request shall be signed and acknowledged by the person making the request, specifying the name and address of the person to whom the notice is to be mailed, shall identify the deed of trust or mortgage by stating the names of the parties thereto, the date of recordation thereof, and the book and page where the deed of trust or mortgage is recorded or the recorder' s number, and shall be in substantially the following form: "In accordance with Section 2924b, Civil Code, request is hereby made that a copy of any notice of default and a copy of any notice of sale under the deed of trust (or mortgage) recorded ______, ____, in Book _____ page ____ records of ____ County, (or filed for record with recorder's serial number ____, _______County) California, executed by ____ as trustor (or mortgagor) in which ________ is named as beneficiary (or mortgagee) and ______________ as trustee be mailed to _________________ at ___________________________. Name Address NOTICE: A copy of any notice of default and of any notice of sale will be sent only to the address contained in this recorded request. If your address changes, a new request must be recorded. Signature _________________" Upon the filing for record of the request, the recorder shall index in the general index of grantors the names of the trustors (or mortgagor) recited therein and the names of persons requesting copies. (b) The mortgagee, trustee, or other person authorized to record the notice of default or the notice of sale shall do each of the following: (1) Within 10 business days following recordation of the notice of default, deposit or cause to be deposited in the United States mail an envelope, sent by registered or certified mail with postage prepaid, containing a copy of the notice with the recording date shown thereon, addressed to each person whose name and address are set forth in a duly recorded request therefor, directed to the address designated in the request and to each trustor or mortgagor at his or her last known address if different than the address specified in the deed of trust or mortgage with power of sale. (2) At least 20 days before the date of sale, deposit or cause to be deposited in the United States mail an envelope, sent by registered or certified mail with postage prepaid, containing a copy of the notice of the time and place of sale, addressed to each person whose name and address are set forth in a duly recorded request therefor, directed to the address designated in the request and to each trustor or mortgagor at his or her last known address if different than the address specified in the deed of trust or mortgage with power of sale. (3) As used in paragraphs (1) and (2), the "last known address" of each trustor or mortgagor means the last business or residence physical address actually known by the mortgagee, beneficiary, trustee, or other person authorized to record the notice of default. For the purposes of this subdivision, an address is "actually known" if it is contained in the original deed of trust or mortgage, or in any subsequent written notification of a change of physical address from the trustor or mortgagor pursuant to the deed of trust or mortgage. For the purposes of this subdivision, "physical address" does not include an e-mail or any form of electronic address for a trustor or mortgagor. The beneficiary shall inform the trustee of the trustor's last address actually known by the beneficiary. However, the trustee shall incur no liability for failing to send any notice to the last address unless the trustee has actual knowledge of it. (4) A "person authorized to record the notice of default or the notice of sale" shall include an agent for the mortgagee or beneficiary, an agent of the named trustee, any person designated in an executed substitution of trustee, or an agent of that substituted trustee. (c) The mortgagee, trustee, or other person authorized to record the notice of default or the notice of sale shall do the following: (1) Within one month following recordation of the notice of default, deposit or cause to be deposited in the United States mail an envelope, sent by registered or certified mail with postage prepaid, containing a copy of the notice with the recording date shown thereon, addressed to each person set forth in paragraph (2), provided that the estate or interest of any person entitled to receive notice under this subdivision is acquired by an instrument sufficient to impart constructive notice of the estate or interest in the land or portion thereof that is subject to the deed of trust or mortgage being foreclosed, and provided the instrument is recorded in the office of the county recorder so as to impart that constructive notice prior to the recording date of the notice of default and provided the instrument as so recorded sets forth a mailing address that the county recorder shall use, as instructed within the instrument, for the return of the instrument after recording, and which address shall be the address used for the purposes of mailing notices herein. (2) The persons to whom notice shall be mailed under this subdivision are: (A) The successor in interest, as of the recording date of the notice of default, of the estate or interest or any portion thereof of the trustor or mortgagor of the deed of trust or mortgage being foreclosed. (B) The beneficiary or mortgagee of any deed of trust or mortgage recorded subsequent to the deed of trust or mortgage being foreclosed, or recorded prior to or concurrently with the deed of trust or mortgage being foreclosed but subject to a recorded agreement or a recorded statement of subordination to the deed of trust or mortgage being foreclosed. (C) The assignee of any interest of the beneficiary or mortgagee described in subparagraph (B), as of the recording date of the notice of default. (D) The vendee of any contract of sale, or the lessee of any lease, of the estate or interest being foreclosed that is recorded subsequent to the deed of trust or mortgage being foreclosed, or recorded prior to or concurrently with the deed of trust or mortgage being foreclosed but subject to a recorded agreement or statement of subordination to the deed of trust or mortgage being foreclosed. (E) The successor in interest to the vendee or lessee described in subparagraph (D), as of the recording date of the notice of default. (F) The office of the Controller, Sacramento, California, where, as of the recording date of the notice of default, a "Notice of Lien for Postponed Property Taxes" has been recorded against the real property to which the notice of default applies. (3) At least 20 days before the date of sale, deposit or cause to be deposited in the United States mail an envelope, sent by registered or certified mail with postage prepaid, containing a copy of the notice of the time and place of sale addressed to each person to whom a copy of the notice of default is to be mailed as provided in paragraphs (1) and (2), and addressed to the office of any state taxing agency, Sacramento, California, that has recorded, subsequent to the deed of trust or mortgage being foreclosed, a notice of tax lien prior to the recording date of the notice of default against the real property to which the notice of default applies. (4) Provide a copy of the notice of sale to the Internal Revenue Service, in accordance with Section 7425 of the Internal Revenue Code and any applicable federal regulation, if a "Notice of Federal Tax Lien under Internal Revenue Laws" has been recorded, subsequent to the deed of trust or mortgage being foreclosed, against the real property to which the notice of sale applies. The failure to provide the Internal Revenue Service with a copy of the notice of sale pursuant to this paragraph shall be sufficient cause to rescind the trustee's sale and invalidate the trustee's deed, at the option of either the successful bidder at the trustee's sale or the trustee, and in either case with the consent of the beneficiary. Any option to rescind the trustee's sale pursuant to this paragraph shall be exercised prior to any transfer of the property by the successful bidder to a bona fide purchaser for value. A recision of the trustee' s sale pursuant to this paragraph may be recorded in a notice of recision pursuant to Section 1058.5. (5) The mailing of notices in the manner set forth in paragraph (1) shall not impose upon any licensed attorney, agent, or employee of any person entitled to receive notices as herein set forth any duty to communicate the notice to the entitled person from the fact that the mailing address used by the county recorder is the address of the attorney, agent, or employee. (d) Any deed of trust or mortgage with power of sale hereafter executed upon real property or an estate for years therein may contain a request that a copy of any notice of default and a copy of any notice of sale thereunder shall be mailed to any person or party thereto at the address of the person given therein, and a copy of any notice of default and of any notice of sale shall be mailed to each of these at the same time and in the same manner required as though a separate request therefor had been filed by each of these persons as herein authorized. If any deed of trust or mortgage with power of sale executed after September 19, 1939, except a deed of trust or mortgage of any of the classes excepted from the provisions of Section 2924, does not contain a mailing address of the trustor or mortgagor therein named, and if no request for special notice by the trustor or mortgagor in substantially the form set forth in this section has subsequently been recorded, a copy of the notice of default shall be published once a week for at least four weeks in a newspaper of general circulation in the county in which the property is situated, the publication to commence within 10 business days after the filing of the notice of default. In lieu of publication, a copy of the notice of default may be delivered personally to the trustor or mortgagor within the 10 business days or at any time before publication is completed, or by posting the notice of default in a conspicuous place on the property and mailing the notice to the last known address of the trustor or mortgagor. (e) Any person required to mail a copy of a notice of default or notice of sale to each trustor or mortgagor pursuant to subdivision (b) or (c) by registered or certified mail shall simultaneously cause to be deposited in the United States mail, with postage prepaid and mailed by first-class mail, an envelope containing an additional copy of the required notice addressed to each trustor or mortgagor at the same address to which the notice is sent by registered or certified mail pursuant to subdivision (b) or (c). The person shall execute and retain an affidavit identifying the notice mailed, showing the name and residence or business address of that person, that he or she is over the age of 18 years, the date of deposit in the mail, the name and address of the trustor or mortgagor to whom sent, and that the envelope was sealed and deposited in the mail with postage fully prepaid. In the absence of fraud, the affidavit required by this subdivision shall establish a conclusive presumption of mailing. (f) With respect to separate interests governed by an association, as defined in subdivision (a) of Section 1351, the association may cause to be filed in the office of the recorder in the county in which the separate interests are situated a request that a mortgagee, trustee, or other person authorized to record a notice of default regarding any of those separate interests mail to the association a copy of any trustee's deed upon sale concerning a separate interest. The request shall include a legal description or the assessor's parcel number of the separate interests. A request recorded pursuant to this subdivision shall include the name and address of the association and a statement that it is a homeowners' association. Subsequent requests of an association shall supersede prior requests. A request pursuant to this subdivision shall be recorded before the filing of a notice of default. The mortgagee, trustee, or other authorized person shall mail the requested information to the association within 15 business days following the date the trustee's deed is recorded. Failure to mail the request, pursuant to this subdivision, shall not affect the title to real property. (g) No request for a copy of any notice filed for record pursuant to this section, no statement or allegation in the request, and no record thereof shall affect the title to real property or be deemed notice to any person that any person requesting copies of notice has or claims any right, title, or interest in, or lien or charge upon the property described in the deed of trust or mortgage referred to therein. (h) "Business day," as used in this section, has the meaning specified in Section 9. 2924c. (a) (1) Whenever all or a portion of the principal sum of any obligation secured by deed of trust or mortgage on real property or an estate for years therein hereafter executed has, prior to the maturity date fixed in that obligation, become due or been declared due by reason of default in payment of interest or of any installment of principal, or by reason of failure of trustor or mortgagor to pay, in accordance with the terms of that obligation or of the deed of trust or mortgage, taxes, assessments, premiums for insurance, or advances made by beneficiary or mortgagee in accordance with the terms of that obligation or of the deed of trust or mortgage, the trustor or mortgagor or his or her successor in interest in the mortgaged or trust property or any part thereof, or any beneficiary under a subordinate deed of trust or any other person having a subordinate lien or encumbrance of record thereon, at any time within the period specified in subdivision (e), if the power of sale therein is to be exercised, or, otherwise at any time prior to entry of the decree of foreclosure, may pay to the beneficiary or the mortgagee or their successors in interest, respectively, the entire amount due, at the time payment is tendered, with respect to (A) all amounts of principal, interest, taxes, assessments, insurance premiums, or advances actually known by the beneficiary to be, and that are, in default and shown in the notice of default, under the terms of the deed of trust or mortgage and the obligation secured thereby, (B) all amounts in default on recurring obligations not shown in the notice of default, and (C) all reasonable costs and expenses, subject to subdivision (c), which are actually incurred in enforcing the terms of the obligation, deed of trust, or mortgage, and trustee's or attorney's fees, subject to subdivision (d), other than the portion of principal as would not then be due had no default occurred, and thereby cure the default theretofore existing, and thereupon, all proceedings theretofore had or instituted shall be dismissed or discontinued and the obligation and deed of trust or mortgage shall be reinstated and shall be and remain in force and effect, the same as if the acceleration had not occurred. This section does not apply to bonds or other evidences of indebtedness authorized or permitted to be issued by the Commissioner of Corporations or made by a public utility subject to the Public Utilities Code. For the purposes of this subdivision, the term "recurring obligation" means all amounts of principal and interest on the loan, or rents, subject to the deed of trust or mortgage in default due after the notice of default is recorded; all amounts of principal and interest or rents advanced on senior liens or leaseholds which are advanced after the recordation of the notice of default; and payments of taxes, assessments, and hazard insurance advanced after recordation of the notice of default. Where the beneficiary or mortgagee has made no advances on defaults which would constitute recurring obligations, the beneficiary or mortgagee may require the trustor or mortgagor to provide reliable written evidence that the amounts have been paid prior to reinstatement. (2) If the trustor, mortgagor, or other person authorized to cure the default pursuant to this subdivision does cure the default, the beneficiary or mortgagee or the agent for the beneficiary or mortgagee shall, within 21 days following the reinstatement, execute and deliver to the trustee a notice of rescission which rescinds the declaration of default and demand for sale and advises the trustee of the date of reinstatement. The trustee shall cause the notice of rescission to be recorded within 30 days of receipt of the notice of rescission and of all allowable fees and costs. No charge, except for the recording fee, shall be made against the trustor or mortgagor for the execution and recordation of the notice which rescinds the declaration of default and demand for sale. (b) (1) The notice, of any default described in this section, recorded pursuant to Section 2924, and mailed to any person pursuant to Section 2924b, shall begin with the following statement, printed or typed thereon: "IMPORTANT NOTICE [14-point boldface type if printed or in capital letters if typed] IF YOUR PROPERTY IS IN FORECLOSURE BECAUSE YOU ARE BEHIND IN YOUR PAYMENTS, IT MAY BE SOLD WITHOUT ANY COURT ACTION, [14-point boldface type if printed or in capital letters if typed] and you may have the legal right to bring your account in good standing by paying all of your past due payments plus permitted costs and expenses within the time permitted by law for reinstatement of your account, which is normally five business days prior to the date set for the sale of your property. No sale date may be set until three months from the date this notice of default may be recorded (which date of recordation appears on this notice). This amount is ____________ as of _______________ (Date) and will increase until your account becomes current. While your property is in foreclosure, you still must pay other obligations (such as insurance and taxes) required by your note and deed of trust or mortgage. If you fail to make future payments on the loan, pay taxes on the property, provide insurance on the property, or pay other obligations as required in the note and deed of trust or mortgage, the beneficiary or mortgagee may insist that you do so in order to reinstate your account in good standing. In addition, the beneficiary or mortgagee may require as a condition to reinstatement that you provide reliable written evidence that you paid all senior liens, property taxes, and hazard insurance premiums. Upon your written request, the beneficiary or mortgagee will give you a written itemization of the entire amount you must pay. You may not have to pay the entire unpaid portion of your account, even though full payment was demanded, but you must pay all amounts in default at the time payment is made. However, you and your beneficiary or mortgagee may mutually agree in writing prior to the time the notice of sale is posted (which may not be earlier than the end of the three-month period stated above) to, among other things, (1) provide additional time in which to cure the default by transfer of the property or otherwise; or (2) establish a schedule of payments in order to cure your default; or both (1) and (2). Following the expiration of the time period referred to in the first paragraph of this notice, unless the obligation being foreclosed upon or a separate written agreement between you and your creditor permits a longer period, you have only the legal right to stop the sale of your property by paying the entire amount demanded by your creditor. To find out the amount you must pay, or to arrange for payment to stop the foreclosure, or if your property is in foreclosure for any other reason, contact: ____________________________________ (Name of beneficiary or mortgagee) ____________________________________ (Mailing address) ____________________________________ (Telephone) If you have any questions, you should contact a lawyer or the governmental agency which may have insured your loan. Notwithstanding the fact that your property is in foreclosure, you may offer your property for sale, provided the sale is concluded prior to the conclusion of the foreclosure. Remember, YOU MAY LOSE LEGAL RIGHTS IF YOU DO NOT TAKE PROMPT ACTION. [14-point boldface type if printed or in capital letters if typed]" Unless otherwise specified, the notice, if printed, shall appear in at least 12-point boldface type. If the obligation secured by the deed of trust or mortgage is a contract or agreement described in paragraph (1) or (4) of subdivision (a) of Section 1632, the notice required herein shall be in Spanish if the trustor requested a Spanish language translation of the contract or agreement pursuant to Section 1632. If the obligation secured by the deed of trust or mortgage is contained in a home improvement contract, as defined in Sections 7151.2 and 7159 of the Business and Professions Code, which is subject to Title 2 (commencing with Section 1801), the seller shall specify on the contract whether or not the contract was principally negotiated in Spanish and if the contract was principally negotiated in Spanish, the notice required herein shall be in Spanish. No assignee of the contract or person authorized to record the notice of default shall incur any obligation or liability for failing to mail a notice in Spanish unless Spanish is specified in the contract or the assignee or person has actual knowledge that the secured obligation was principally negotiated in Spanish. Unless specified in writing to the contrary, a copy of the notice required by subdivision (c) of Section 2924b shall be in English. (2) Any failure to comply with the provisions of this subdivision shall not affect the validity of a sale in favor of a bona fide purchaser or the rights of an encumbrancer for value and without notice. (c) Costs and expenses which may be charged pursuant to Sections 2924 to 2924i, inclusive, shall be limited to the costs incurred for recording, mailing, including certified and express mail charges, publishing, and posting notices required by Sections 2924 to 2924i, inclusive, postponement pursuant to Section 2924g not to exceed fifty dollars ($50) per postponement and a fee for a trustee's sale guarantee or, in the event of judicial foreclosure, a litigation guarantee. For purposes of this subdivision, a trustee or beneficiary may purchase a trustee's sale guarantee at a rate meeting the standards contained in Sections 12401.1 and 12401.3 of the Insurance Code. (d) Trustee's or attorney's fees which may be charged pursuant to subdivision (a), or until the notice of sale is deposited in the mail to the trustor as provided in Section 2924b, if the sale is by power of sale contained in the deed of trust or mortgage, or, otherwise at any time prior to the decree of foreclosure, are hereby authorized to be in a base amount that does not exceed three hundred dollars ($300) if the unpaid principal sum secured is one hundred fifty thousand dollars ($150,000) or less, or two hundred fifty dollars ($250) if the unpaid principal sum secured exceeds one hundred fifty thousand dollars ($150,000), plus one-half of 1 percent of the unpaid principal sum secured exceeding fifty thousand dollars ($50,000) up to and including one hundred fifty thousand dollars ($150,000), plus one-quarter of 1 percent of any portion of the unpaid principal sum secured exceeding one hundred fifty thousand dollars ($150,000) up to and including five hundred thousand dollars ($500,000), plus one-eighth of 1 percent of any portion of the unpaid principal sum secured exceeding five hundred thousand dollars ($500,000). Any charge for trustee's or attorney's fees authorized by this subdivision shall be conclusively presumed to be lawful and valid where the charge does not exceed the amounts authorized herein. For purposes of this subdivision, the unpaid principal sum secured shall be determined as of the date the notice of default is recorded. (e) Reinstatement of a monetary default under the terms of an obligation secured by a deed of trust, or mortgage may be made at any time within the period commencing with the date of recordation of the notice of default until five business days prior to the date of sale set forth in the initial recorded notice of sale. In the event the sale does not take place on the date set forth in the initial recorded notice of sale or a subsequent recorded notice of sale is required to be given, the right of reinstatement shall be revived as of the date of recordation of the subsequent notice of sale, and shall continue from that date until five business days prior to the date of sale set forth in the subsequently recorded notice of sale. In the event the date of sale is postponed on the date of sale set forth in either an initial or any subsequent notice of sale, or is postponed on the date declared for sale at an immediately preceding postponement of sale, and, the postponement is for a period which exceeds five business days from the date set forth in the notice of sale, or declared at the time of postponement, then the right of reinstatement is revived as of the date of postponement and shall continue from that date until five business days prior to the date of sale declared at the time of the postponement. Nothing contained herein shall give rise to a right of reinstatement during the period of five business days prior to the date of sale, whether the date of sale is noticed in a notice of sale or declared at a postponement of sale. Pursuant to the terms of this subdivision, no beneficiary, trustee, mortgagee, or their agents or successors shall be liable in any manner to a trustor, mortgagor, their agents or successors or any beneficiary under a subordinate deed of trust or mortgage or any other person having a subordinate lien or encumbrance of record thereon for the failure to allow a reinstatement of the obligation secured by a deed of trust or mortgage during the period of five business days prior to the sale of the security property, and no such right of reinstatement during this period is created by this section. Any right of reinstatement created by this section is terminated five business days prior to the date of sale set forth in the initial date of sale, and is revived only as prescribed herein and only as of the date set forth herein. As used in this subdivision, the term "business day" has the same meaning as specified in Section 9. 2924d. (a) Commencing with the date that the notice of sale is deposited in the mail, as provided in Section 2924b, and until the property is sold pursuant to the power of sale contained in the mortgage or deed of trust, a beneficiary, trustee, mortgagee, or his or her agent or successor in interest, may demand and receive from a trustor, mortgagor, or his or her agent or successor in interest, or any beneficiary under a subordinate deed of trust, or any other person having a subordinate lien or encumbrance of record those reasonable costs and expenses, to the extent allowed by subdivision (c) of Section 2924c, which are actually incurred in enforcing the terms of the obligation and trustee's or attorney's fees which are hereby authorized to be in a base amount which does not exceed four hundred twenty-five dollars ($425) if the unpaid principal sum secured is one hundred fifty thousand dollars ($150,000) or less, or three hundred sixty dollars ($360) if the unpaid principal sum secured exceeds one hundred fifty thousand dollars ($150,000), plus 1 percent of any portion of the unpaid principal sum secured exceeding fifty thousand dollars ($50,000) up to and including one hundred fifty thousand dollars ($150,000), plus one-half of 1 percent of any portion of the unpaid principal sum secured exceeding one hundred fifty thousand dollars ($150,000) up to and including five hundred thousand dollars ($500,000), plus one-quarter of 1 percent of any portion of the unpaid principal sum secured exceeding five hundred thousand dollars ($500,000). For purposes of this subdivision, the unpaid principal sum secured shall be determined as of the date the notice of default is recorded. Any charge for trustee's or attorney's fees authorized by this subdivision shall be conclusively presumed to be lawful and valid where that charge does not exceed the amounts authorized herein. Any charge for trustee's or attorney's fees made pursuant to this subdivision shall be in lieu of and not in addition to those charges authorized by subdivision (d) of Section 2924c. (b) Upon the sale of property pursuant to a power of sale, a trustee, or his or her agent or successor in interest, may demand and receive from a beneficiary, or his or her agent or successor in interest, or may deduct from the proceeds of the sale, those reasonable costs and expenses, to the extent allowed by subdivision (c) of Section 2924c, which are actually incurred in enforcing the terms of the obligation and trustee's or attorney's fees which are hereby authorized to be in an amount which does not exceed four hundred twenty-five dollars ($425) or one percent of the unpaid principal sum secured, whichever is greater. For purposes of this subdivision, the unpaid principal sum secured shall be determined as of the date the notice of default is recorded. Any charge for trustee' s or attorney's fees authorized by this subdivision shall be conclusively presumed to be lawful and valid where that charge does not exceed the amount authorized herein. Any charges for trustee's or attorney's fees made pursuant to this subdivision shall be in lieu of and not in addition to those charges authorized by subdivision (a) of this section and subdivision (d) of Section 2924c. (c) (1) No person shall pay or offer to pay or collect any rebate or kickback for the referral of business involving the performance of any act required by this article. (2) Any person who violates this subdivision shall be liable to the trustor for three times the amount of any rebate or kickback, plus reasonable attorney's fees and costs, in addition to any other remedies provided by law. (3) No violation of this subdivision shall affect the validity of a sale in favor of a bona fide purchaser or the rights of an encumbrancer for value without notice. (d) It shall not be unlawful for a trustee to pay or offer to pay a fee to an agent or subagent of the trustee for work performed by the agent or subagent in discharging the trustee's obligations under the terms of the deed of trust. Any payment of a fee by a trustee to an agent or subagent of the trustee for work performed by the agent or subagent in discharging the trustee's obligations under the terms of the deed of trust shall be conclusively presumed to be lawful and valid if the fee, when combined with other fees of the trustee, does not exceed in the aggregate the trustee's fee authorized by subdivision (d) of Section 2924c or subdivision (a) or (b) of this section. (e) When a court issues a decree of foreclosure, it shall have discretion to award attorney's fees, costs, and expenses as are reasonable, if provided for in the note, deed of trust, or mortgage, pursuant to Section 580c of the Code of Civil Procedure. 2924e. (a) The beneficiary or mortgagee of any deed of trust or mortgage on real property either containing one to four residential units or given to secure an original obligation not to exceed three hundred thousand dollars ($300,000) may, with the written consent of the trustor or mortgagor that is either effected through a signed and dated agreement which shall be separate from other loan and security documents or disclosed to the trustor or mortgagor in at least 10-point type, submit a written request by certified mail to the beneficiary or mortgagee of any lien which is senior to the lien of the requester, for written notice of any or all delinquencies of four months or more, in payments of principal or interest on any obligation secured by that senior lien notwithstanding that the loan secured by the lien of the requester is not then in default as to payments of principal or interest. The request shall be sent to the beneficiary or mortgagee, or agent which it might designate for the purpose of receiving loan payments, at the address specified for the receipt of these payments, if known, or, if not known, at the address shown on the recorded deed of trust or mortgage. (b) The request for notice shall identify the ownership or security interest of the requester, the date on which the interest of the requester will terminate as evidenced by the maturity date of the note of the trustor or mortgagor in favor of the requester, the name of the trustor or mortgagor and the name of the current owner of the security property if different from the trustor or mortgagor, the street address or other description of the security property, the loan number (if available to the requester) of the loan secured by the senior lien, the name and address to which notice is to be sent, and shall include or be accompanied by the signed written consent of the trustor or mortgagor, and a fee of forty dollars ($40). For obligations secured by residential properties, the request shall remain valid until withdrawn in writing and shall be applicable to all delinquencies as provided in this section, which occur prior to the date on which the interest of the requester will terminate as specified in the request or the expiration date, as appropriate. For obligations secured by nonresidential properties, the request shall remain valid until withdrawn in writing and shall be applicable to all delinquencies as provided in this section, which occur prior to the date on which the interest of the requester will terminate as specified in the request or the expiration date, as appropriate. The beneficiary or mortgagee of obligations secured by nonresidential properties that have sent five or more notices prior to the expiration of the effective period of the request may charge a fee up to fifteen dollars ($15) for each subsequent notice. A request for notice shall be effective for five years from the mailing of the request or the recording of that request, whichever occurs later, and may be renewed within six months prior to its expiration date by sending the beneficiary or mortgagee, or agent, as the case may be, at the address to which original requests for notice are to be sent, a copy of the earlier request for notice together with a signed statement that the request is renewed and a renewal fee of fifteen dollars ($15). Upon timely submittal of a renewal request for notice, the effectiveness of the original request is continued for five years from the time when it would otherwise have lapsed. Succeeding renewal requests may be submitted in the same manner. The request for notice and renewals thereof shall be recorded in the office of the county recorder of the county in which the security real property is situated. The rights and obligations specified in this section shall inure to the benefit of, or pass to, as the case may be, successors in interest of parties specified in this section. Any successor in interest of a party entitled to notice under this section shall file a request for that notice with any beneficiary or mortgagee of the senior lien and shall pay a processing fee of fifteen dollars ($15). No new written consent shall be required from the trustor or mortgagor. (c) Unless the delinquency has been cured, within 15 days following the end of four months from any delinquency in payments of principal or interest on any obligation secured by the senior lien which delinquency exists or occurs on or after 10 days from the mailing of the request for notice or the recording of that request, whichever occurs later, the beneficiary or mortgagee shall give written notice to the requester of the fact of any delinquency and the amount thereof. The notice shall be given by personal service, or by deposit in the mail, first-class postage paid. Following the recording of any notice of default pursuant to Section 2924 with respect to the same delinquency, no notice or further notice shall be required pursuant to this section. (d) If the beneficiary or mortgagee of any such senior lien fails to give notice to the requester as required in subdivision (c), and a subsequent foreclosure or trustee's sale of the security property occurs, the beneficiary or mortgagee shall be liable to the requester for any monetary damage due to the failure to provide notice within the time period specified in subdivision (c) which the requester has sustained from the date on which notice should have been given to the earlier of the date on which the notice is given or the date of the recording of the notice of default under Section 2924, and shall also forfeit to the requester the sum of three hundred dollars ($300). A showing by the beneficiary or mortgagee by a preponderance of the evidence that the failure to provide timely notice as required by subdivision (c) resulted from a bona fide error notwithstanding the maintenance of procedures reasonably adapted to avoid any such error shall be a defense to any liability for that failure. (e) If any beneficiary or mortgagee, or agent which it had designated for the purpose of receiving loan payments, has been succeeded in interest by any other person, any request for notice received pursuant to this section shall be transmitted promptly to that person. (f) Any failure to comply with the provisions of this section shall not affect the validity of a sale in favor of a bona fide purchaser or the rights of an encumbrancer for value and without notice. (g) Upon satisfaction of an obligation secured by a junior lien with respect to which a notice request was made pursuant to this section, the beneficiary or mortgagee that made the request shall communicate that fact in writing to the senior lienholder to whom the request was made. The communication shall specify that provision of notice pursuant to the prior request under this section is no longer required. 2924f. (a) As used in this section and Sections 2924g and 2924h, "property" means real property or a leasehold estate therein, and "calendar week" means Monday through Saturday, inclusive. (b) (1) Except as provided in subdivision (c), before any sale of property can be made under the power of sale contained in any deed of trust or mortgage, or any resale resulting from a rescission for a failure of consideration pursuant to subdivision (c) of Section 2924h, notice of the sale thereof shall be given by posting a written notice of the time of sale and of the street address and the specific place at the street address where the sale will be held, and describing the property to be sold, at least 20 days before the date of sale in one public place in the city where the property is to be sold, if the property is to be sold in a city, or, if not, then in one public place in the judicial district in which the property is to be sold, and publishing a copy once a week for three consecutive calendar weeks, the first publication to be at least 20 days before the date of sale, in a newspaper of general circulation published in the city in which the property or some part thereof is situated, if any part thereof is situated in a city, if not, then in a newspaper of general circulation published in the judicial district in which the property or some part thereof is situated, or in case no newspaper of general circulation is published in the city or judicial district, as the case may be, in a newspaper of general circulation published in the county in which the property or some part thereof is situated, or in case no newspaper of general circulation is published in the city or judicial district or county, as the case may be, in a newspaper of general circulation published in the county in this state that (A) is contiguous to the county in which the property or some part thereof is situated and (B) has, by comparison with all similarly contiguous counties, the highest population based upon total county population as determined by the most recent federal decennial census published by the Bureau of the Census. A copy of the notice of sale shall also be posted in a conspicuous place on the property to be sold at least 20 days before the date of sale, where possible and where not restricted for any reason. If the property is a single-family residence the posting shall be on a door of the residence, but, if not possible or restricted, then the notice shall be posted in a conspicuous place on the property; however, if access is denied because a common entrance to the property is restricted by a guard gate or similar impediment, the property may be posted at that guard gate or similar impediment to any development community. Additionally, the notice of sale shall conform to the minimum requirements of Section 6043 of the Government Code and be recorded with the county recorder of the county in which the property or some part thereof is situated at least 20 days prior to the date of sale. The notice of sale shall contain the name, street address in this state, which may reflect an agent of the trustee, and either a toll-free telephone number or telephone number in this state of the trustee, and the name of the original trustor, and also shall contain the statement required by paragraph (3) of subdivision (c). In addition to any other description of the property, the notice shall describe the property by giving its street address, if any, or other common designation, if any, and a county assessor's parcel number; but if the property has no street address or other common designation, the notice shall contain a legal description of the property, the name and address of the beneficiary at whose request the sale is to be conducted, and a statement that directions may be obtained pursuant to a written request submitted to the beneficiary within 10 days from the first publication of the notice. Directions shall be deemed reasonably sufficient to locate the property if information as to the location of the property is given by reference to the direction and approximate distance from the nearest crossroads, frontage road, or access road. If a legal description or a county assessor's parcel number and either a street address or another common designation of the property is given, the validity of the notice and the validity of the sale shall not be affected by the fact that the street address, other common designation, name and address of the beneficiary, or the directions obtained therefrom are erroneous or that the street address, other common designation, name and address of the beneficiary, or directions obtained therefrom are omitted. The term "newspaper of general circulation," as used in this section, has the same meaning as defined in Article 1 (commencing with Section 6000) of Chapter 1 of Division 7 of Title 1 of the Government Code. The notice of sale shall contain a statement of the total amount of the unpaid balance of the obligation secured by the property to be sold and reasonably estimated costs, expenses, advances at the time of the initial publication of the notice of sale, and, if republished pursuant to a cancellation of a cash equivalent pursuant to subdivision (d) of Section 2924h, a reference of that fact; provided, that the trustee shall incur no liability for any good faith error in stating the proper amount, including any amount provided in good faith by or on behalf of the beneficiary. An inaccurate statement of this amount shall not affect the validity of any sale to a bona fide purchaser for value, nor shall the failure to post the notice of sale on a door as provided by this subdivision affect the validity of any sale to a bona fide purchaser for value. (2) If the sale of the property is to be a unified sale as provided in subparagraph (B) of paragraph (1) of subdivision (a) of Section 9604 of the Commercial Code, the notice of sale shall also contain a description of the personal property or fixtures to be sold. In the case where it is contemplated that all of the personal property or fixtures are to be sold, the description in the notice of the personal property or fixtures shall be sufficient if it is the same as the description of the personal property or fixtures contained in the agreement creating the security interest in or encumbrance on the personal property or fixtures or the filed financing statement relating to the personal property or fixtures. In all other cases, the description in the notice shall be sufficient if it would be a sufficient description of the personal property or fixtures under Section 9108 of the Commercial Code. Inclusion of a reference to or a description of personal property or fixtures in a notice of sale hereunder shall not constitute an election by the secured party to conduct a unified sale pursuant to subparagraph (B) of paragraph (1) of subdivision (a) of Section 9604 of the Commercial Code, shall not obligate the secured party to conduct a unified sale pursuant to subparagraph (B) of paragraph (1) of subdivision (a) of Section 9604 of the Commercial Code, and in no way shall render defective or noncomplying either that notice or a sale pursuant to that notice by reason of the fact that the sale includes none or less than all of the personal property or fixtures referred to or described in the notice. This paragraph shall not otherwise affect the obligations or duties of a secured party under the Commercial Code. (c) (1) This subdivision applies only to deeds of trust or mortgages which contain a power of sale and which are secured by real property containing a single-family, owner-occupied residence, where the obligation secured by the deed of trust or mortgage is contained in a contract for goods or services subject to the provisions of the Unruh Act (Chapter 1 (commencing with Section 1801) of Title 2 of Part 4 of Division 3). (2) Except as otherwise expressly set forth in this subdivision, all other provisions of law relating to the exercise of a power of sale shall govern the exercise of a power of sale contained in a deed of trust or mortgage described in paragraph (1). (3) If any default of the obligation secured by a deed of trust or mortgage described in paragraph (1) has not been cured within 30 days after the recordation of the notice of default, the trustee or mortgagee shall mail to the trustor or mortgagor, at his or her last known address, a copy of the following statement: YOU ARE IN DEFAULT UNDER A _______________________________________________, (Deed of trust or mortgage) DATED ____. UNLESS YOU TAKE ACTION TO PROTECT YOUR PROPERTY, IT MAY BE SOLD AT A PUBLIC SALE. IF YOU NEED AN EXPLANATION OF THE NATURE OF THE PROCEEDING AGAINST YOU, YOU SHOULD CONTACT A LAWYER. (4) All sales of real property pursuant to a power of sale contained in any deed of trust or mortgage described in paragraph (1) shall be held in the county where the residence is located and shall be made to the person making the highest offer. The trustee may receive offers during the 10-day period immediately prior to the date of sale and if any offer is accepted in writing by both the trustor or mortgagor and the beneficiary or mortgagee prior to the time set for sale, the sale shall be postponed to a date certain and prior to which the property may be conveyed by the trustor to the person making the offer according to its terms. The offer is revocable until accepted. The performance of the offer, following acceptance, according to its terms, by a conveyance of the property to the offeror, shall operate to terminate any further proceeding under the notice of sale and it shall be deemed revoked. (5) In addition to the trustee fee pursuant to Section 2924c, the trustee or mortgagee pursuant to a deed of trust or mortgage subject to this subdivision shall be entitled to charge an additional fee of fifty dollars ($50). (6) This subdivision applies only to property on which notices of default were filed on or after the effective date of this subdivision. 2924g. (a) All sales of property under the power of sale contained in any deed of trust or mortgage shall be held in the county where the property or some part thereof is situated, and shall be made at auction, to the highest bidder, between the hours of 9 a.m. and 5 p.m. on any business day, Monday through Friday. The sale shall commence at the time and location specified in the notice of sale. Any postponement shall be announced at the time and location specified in the notice of sale for commencement of the sale or pursuant to paragraph (1) of subdivision (c). If the sale of more than one parcel of real property has been scheduled for the same time and location by the same trustee, (1) any postponement of any of the sales shall be announced at the time published in the notice of sale, (2) the first sale shall commence at the time published in the notice of sale or immediately after the announcement of any postponement, and (3) each subsequent sale shall take place as soon as possible after the preceding sale has been completed. (b) When the property consists of several known lots or parcels, they shall be sold separately unless the deed of trust or mortgage provides otherwise. When a portion of the property is claimed by a third person, who requires it to be sold separately, the portion subject to the claim may be thus sold. The trustor, if present at the sale, may also, unless the deed of trust or mortgage otherwise provides, direct the order in which property shall be sold, when the property consists of several known lots or parcels which may be sold to advantage separately, and the trustee shall follow that direction. After sufficient property has been sold to satisfy the indebtedness, no more can be sold. If the property under power of sale is in two or more counties, the public auction sale of all of the property under the power of sale may take place in any one of the counties where the property or a portion thereof is located. (c) (1) There may be a postponement or postponements of the sale proceedings, including a postponement upon instruction by the beneficiary to the trustee that the sale proceedings be postponed, at any time prior to the completion of the sale for any period of time not to exceed a total of 365 days from the date set forth in the notice of sale. The trustee shall postpone the sale in accordance with any of the following: (A) Upon the order of any court of competent jurisdiction. (B) If stayed by operation of law. (C) By mutual agreement, whether oral or in writing, of any trustor and any beneficiary or any mortgagor and any mortgagee. (D) At the discretion of the trustee. (2) In the event that the sale proceedings are postponed for a period or periods totaling more than 365 days, the scheduling of any further sale proceedings shall be preceded by giving a new notice of sale in the manner prescribed in Section 2924f. New fees incurred for the new notice of sale shall not exceed the amounts specified in Sections 2924c and 2924d, and shall not exceed reasonable costs that are necessary to comply with this paragraph. (d) The notice of each postponement and the reason therefor shall be given by public declaration by the trustee at the time and place last appointed for sale. A public declaration of postponement shall also set forth the new date, time, and place of sale and the place of sale shall be the same place as originally fixed by the trustee for the sale. No other notice of postponement need be given. However, the sale shall be conducted no sooner than on the seventh day after the earlier of (1) dismissal of the action or (2) expiration or termination of the injunction, restraining order, or stay that required postponement of the sale, whether by entry of an order by a court of competent jurisdiction, operation of law, or otherwise, unless the injunction, restraining order, or subsequent order expressly directs the conduct of the sale within that seven-day period. For purposes of this subdivision, the seven-day period shall not include the day on which the action is dismissed, or the day on which the injunction, restraining order, or stay expires or is terminated. If the sale had been scheduled to occur, but this subdivision precludes its conduct during that seven-day period, a new notice of postponement shall be given if the sale had been scheduled to occur during that seven-day period. The trustee shall maintain records of each postponement and the reason therefor. (e) Notwithstanding the time periods established under subdivision (d), if postponement of a sale is based on a stay imposed by Title 11 of the United States Code (bankruptcy), the sale shall be conducted no sooner than the expiration of the stay imposed by that title and the seven-day provision of subdivision (d) shall not apply. 2924h. (a) Each and every bid made by a bidder at a trustee's sale under a power of sale contained in a deed of trust or mortgage shall be deemed to be an irrevocable offer by that bidder to purchase the property being sold by the trustee under the power of sale for the amount of the bid. Any second or subsequent bid by the same bidder or any other bidder for a higher amount shall be a cancellation of the prior bid. (b) At the trustee's sale the trustee shall have the right (1) to require every bidder to show evidence of the bidder's ability to deposit with the trustee the full amount of his or her final bid in cash, a cashier's check drawn on a state or national bank, a check drawn by a state or federal credit union, or a check drawn by a state or federal savings and loan association, savings association, or savings bank specified in Section 5102 of the Financial Code and authorized to do business in this state, or a cash equivalent which has been designated in the notice of sale as acceptable to the trustee prior to, and as a condition to, the recognizing of the bid, and to conditionally accept and hold these amounts for the duration of the sale, and (2) to require the last and highest bidder to deposit, if not deposited previously, the full amount of the bidder's final bid in cash, a cashier's check drawn on a state or national bank, a check drawn by a state or federal credit union, or a check drawn by a state or federal savings and loan association, savings association, or savings bank specified in Section 5102 of the Financial Code and authorized to do business in this state, or a cash equivalent which has been designated in the notice of sale as acceptable to the trustee, immediately prior to the completion of the sale, the completion of the sale being so announced by the fall of the hammer or in another customary manner. The present beneficiary of the deed of trust under foreclosure shall have the right to offset his or her bid or bids only to the extent of the total amount due the beneficiary including the trustee's fees and expenses. (c) In the event the trustee accepts a check drawn by a credit union or a savings and loan association pursuant to this subdivision or a cash equivalent designated in the notice of sale, the trustee may withhold the issuance of the trustee's deed to the successful bidder submitting the check drawn by a state or federal credit union or savings and loan association or the cash equivalent until funds become available to the payee or endorsee as a matter of right. For the purposes of this subdivision, the trustee's sale shall be deemed final upon the acceptance of the last and highest bid, and shall be deemed perfected as of 8 a.m. on the actual date of sale if the trustee's deed is recorded within 15 calendar days after the sale, or the next business day following the 15th day if the county recorder in which the property is located is closed on the 15th day. However, the sale is subject to an automatic rescission for a failure of consideration in the event the funds are not "available for withdrawal" as defined in Section 12413.1 of the Insurance Code. The trustee shall send a notice of rescission for a failure of consideration to the last and highest bidder submitting the check or alternative instrument, if the address of the last and highest bidder is known to the trustee. If a sale results in an automatic right of rescission for failure of consideration pursuant to this subdivision, the interest of any lienholder shall be reinstated in the same priority as if the previous sale had not occurred. (d) If the trustee has not required the last and highest bidder to deposit the cash, a cashier's check drawn on a state or national bank, a check drawn by a state or federal credit union, or a check drawn by a state or federal savings and loan association, savings association, or savings bank specified in Section 5102 of the Financial Code and authorized to do business in this state, or a cash equivalent which has been designated in the notice of sale as acceptable to the trustee in the manner set forth in paragraph (2) of subdivision (b), the trustee shall complete the sale. If the last and highest bidder then fails to deliver to the trustee, when demanded, the amount of his or her final bid in cash, a cashier's check drawn on a state or national bank, a check drawn by a state or federal credit union, or a check drawn by a state or federal savings and loan association, savings association, or savings bank specified in Section 5102 of the Financial Code and authorized to do business in this state, or a cash equivalent which has been designated in the notice of sale as acceptable to the trustee, that bidder shall be liable to the trustee for all damages which the trustee may sustain by the refusal to deliver to the trustee the amount of the final bid, including any court costs and reasonable attorneys' fees. If the last and highest bidder willfully fails to deliver to the trustee the amount of his or her final bid in cash, a cashier's check drawn on a state or national bank, a check drawn by a state or federal credit union, or a check drawn by a state or federal savings and loan association, savings association, or savings bank specified in Section 5102 of the Financial Code and authorized to do business in this state, or a cash equivalent which has been designated in the notice of sale as acceptable to the trustee, or if the last and highest bidder cancels a cashiers check drawn on a state or national bank, a check drawn by a state or federal credit union, or a check drawn by a state or federal savings and loan association, savings association, or savings bank specified in Section 5102 of the Financial Code and authorized to do business in this state, or a cash equivalent that has been designated in the notice of sale as acceptable to the trustee, that bidder shall be guilty of a misdemeanor punishable by a fine of not more than two thousand five hundred dollars ($2,500). In the event the last and highest bidder cancels an instrument submitted to the trustee as a cash equivalent, the trustee shall provide a new notice of sale in the manner set forth in Section 2924f and shall be entitled to recover the costs of the new notice of sale as provided in Section 2924c. (e) Any postponement or discontinuance of the sale proceedings shall be a cancellation of the last bid. (f) In the event that this section conflicts with any other statute, then this section shall prevail. (g) It shall be unlawful for any person, acting alone or in concert with others, (1) to offer to accept or accept from another, any consideration of any type not to bid, or (2) to fix or restrain bidding in any manner, at a sale of property conducted pursuant to a power of sale in a deed of trust or mortgage. However, it shall not be unlawful for any person, including a trustee, to state that a property subject to a recorded notice of default or subject to a sale conducted pursuant to this chapter is being sold in an "as-is" condition. In addition to any other remedies, any person committing any act declared unlawful by this subdivision or any act which would operate as a fraud or deceit upon any beneficiary, trustor, or junior lienor shall, upon conviction, be fined not more than ten thousand dollars ($10,000) or imprisoned in the county jail for not more than one year, or be punished by both that fine and imprisonment. 2924i. (a) This section applies to loans secured by a deed of trust or mortgage on real property containing one to four residential units at least one of which at the time the loan is made is or is to be occupied by the borrower if the loan is for a period in excess of one year and is a balloon payment loan. (b) This section shall not apply to (1) open end credit as defined in Regulation Z, whether or not the transaction is otherwise subject to Regulation Z, (2) transactions subject to Section 2956, or (3) loans made for the principal purpose of financing the construction of one or more residential units. (c) At least 90 days but not more than 150 days prior to the due date of the final payment on a loan that is subject to this section, the holder of the loan shall deliver or mail by first-class mail, with a certificate of mailing obtained from the United States Postal Service, to the trustor, or his or her successor in interest, at the last known address of that person, a written notice which shall include all of the following: (1) A statement of the name and address of the person to whom the final payment is required to be paid. (2) The date on or before which the final payment is required to be paid. (3) The amount of the final payment, or if the exact amount is unknown, a good faith estimate of the amount thereof, including unpaid principal, interest and any other charges, such amount to be determined assuming timely payment in full of all scheduled installments coming due between the date the notice is prepared and the date when the final payment is due. (4) If the borrower has a contractual right to refinance the final payment, a statement to that effect. If the due date of the final payment of a loan subject to this section is extended prior to the time notice is otherwise required under this subdivision, this notice requirement shall apply only to the due date as extended (or as subsequently extended). (d) For purposes of this section: (1) A "balloon payment loan" is a loan which provides for a final payment as originally scheduled which is more than twice the amount of any of the immediately preceding six regularly scheduled payments or which contains a call provision; provided, however, that if the call provision is not exercised by the holder of the loan, the existence of the unexercised call provision shall not cause the loan to be deemed to be a balloon payment loan. (2) "Call provision" means a loan contract term that provides the holder of the loan with the right to call the loan due and payable either after a specified period has elapsed following closing or after a specified date. (3) "Regulation Z" means any rule, regulation, or interpretation promulgated by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System under the Federal Truth in Lending Act, as amended (15 U.S.C. Sec. 1601 et seq.), and any interpretation or approval thereof issued by an official or employee of the Federal Reserve System duly authorized by the board under the Truth in Lending Act, as amended, to issue such interpretations or approvals. (e) Failure to provide notice as required by subdivision (a) does not extinguish any obligation of payment by the borrower, except that the due date for any balloon payment shall be the date specified in the balloon payment note, or 90 days from the date of delivery or mailing of the notice required by subdivision (a), or the due date specified in the notice required by subdivision (a), whichever date is later. If the operation of this section acts to extend the term of any note, interest shall continue to accrue for the extended term at the contract rate and payments shall continue to be due at any periodic interval and on any payment schedule specified in the note and shall be credited to principal or interest under the terms of the note. Default in any extended periodic payment shall be considered a default under terms of the note or security instrument. (f) (1) The validity of any credit document or of any security document subject to the provisions of this section shall not be invalidated solely because of the failure of any person to comply with this section. However, any person who willfully violates any provision of this section shall be liable in the amount of actual damages suffered by the debtor as the proximate result of the violation, and, if the debtor prevails in any suit to recover that amount, for reasonable attorney's fees. (2) No person may be held liable in any action under this section if it is shown by a preponderance of the evidence that the violation was not intentional and resulted from a bona fide error notwithstanding the maintenance of procedures reasonably adopted to avoid any such error. (g) The provisions of this section shall apply to any note executed on or after January 1, 1984. 2924j. (a) Unless an interpleader action has been filed, within 30 days of the execution of the trustee's deed resulting from a sale in which there are proceeds remaining after payment of the amounts required by paragraphs (1) and (2) of subdivision (a) of Section 2924k, the trustee shall send written notice to all persons with recorded interests in the real property as of the date immediately prior to the trustee's sale who would be entitled to notice pursuant to subdivisions (b) and (c) of Section 2924b. The notice shall be sent by first-class mail in the manner provided in paragraph (1) of subdivision (c) of Section 2924b and inform each entitled person of each of the following: (1) That there has been a trustee's sale of the described real property. (2) That the noticed person may have a claim to all or a portion of the sale proceeds remaining after payment of the amounts required by paragraphs (1) and (2) of subdivision (a) of Section 2924k. (3) The noticed person may contact the trustee at the address provided in the notice to pursue any potential claim. (4) That before the trustee can act, the noticed person may be required to present proof that the person holds the beneficial interest in the obligation and the security interest therefor. In the case of a promissory note secured by a deed of trust, proof that the person holds the beneficial interest may include the original promissory note and assignment of beneficial interests related thereto. The noticed person shall also submit a written claim to the trustee, executed under penalty of perjury, stating the following: (A) The amount of the claim to the date of trustee's sale. (B) An itemized statement of the principal, interest, and other charges. (C) That claims must be received by the trustee at the address stated in the notice no later than 30 days after the date the trustee sends notice to the potential claimant. (b) The trustee shall exercise due diligence to determine the priority of the written claims received by the trustee to the trustee' s sale surplus proceeds from those persons to whom notice was sent pursuant to subdivision (a). In the event there is no dispute as to the priority of the written claims submitted to the trustee, proceeds shall be paid within 30 days after the conclusion of the notice period. If the trustee has failed to determine the priority of written claims within 90 days following the 30-day notice period, then within 10 days thereafter the trustee shall deposit the funds with the clerk of the court pursuant to subdivision (c) or file an interpleader action pursuant to subdivision (e). Nothing in this section shall preclude any person from pursuing other remedies or claims as to surplus proceeds. (c) If, after due diligence, the trustee is unable to determine the priority of the written claims received by the trustee to the trustee's sale surplus of multiple persons or if the trustee determines there is a conflict between potential claimants, the trustee may file a declaration of the unresolved claims and deposit with the clerk of the superior court of the county in which the sale occurred, that portion of the sales proceeds that cannot be distributed, less any fees charged by the clerk pursuant to this subdivision. The declaration shall specify the date of the trustee's sale, a description of the property, the names and addresses of all persons sent notice pursuant to subdivision (a), a statement that the trustee exercised due diligence pursuant to subdivision (b), that the trustee provided written notice as required by subdivisions (a) and (d) and the amount of the sales proceeds deposited by the trustee with the court. Further, the trustee shall submit a copy of the trustee's sales guarantee and any information relevant to the identity, location, and priority of the potential claimants with the court and shall file proof of service of the notice required by subdivision (d) on all persons described in subdivision (a). The clerk shall deposit the amount with the county treasurer or, if a bank account has been established for moneys held in trust under paragraph (2) of subdivision (a) of Section 77009 of the Government Code, in that account, subject to order of the court upon the application of any interested party. The clerk may charge a reasonable fee for the performance of activities pursuant to this subdivision equal to the fee for filing an interpleader action pursuant to Chapter 5.8 (commencing with Section 70600) of Title 8 of the Government Code. Upon deposit of that portion of the sale proceeds that cannot be distributed by due diligence, the trustee shall be discharged of further responsibility for the disbursement of sale proceeds. A deposit with the clerk of the court pursuant to this subdivision may be either for the total proceeds of the trustee' s sale, less any fees charged by the clerk, if a conflict or conflicts exist with respect to the total proceeds, or that portion that cannot be distributed after due diligence, less any fees charged by the clerk. (d) Before the trustee deposits the funds with the clerk of the court pursuant to subdivision (c), the trustee shall send written notice by first-class mail, postage prepaid, to all persons described in subdivision (a) informing them that the trustee intends to deposit the funds with the clerk of the court and that a claim for the funds must be filed with the court within 30 days from the date of the notice, providing the address of the court in which the funds were deposited, and a telephone number for obtaining further information. Within 90 days after deposit with the clerk, the court shall consider all claims filed at least 15 days before the date on which the hearing is scheduled by the court, the clerk shall serve written notice of the hearing by first-class mail on all claimants identified in the trustee's declaration at the addresses specified therein. Where the amount of the deposit is twenty-five thousand dollars ($25,000) or less, a proceeding pursuant to this section is a limited civil case. The court shall distribute the deposited funds to any and all claimants entitled thereto. (e) Nothing in this section restricts the ability of a trustee to file an interpleader action in order to resolve a dispute about the proceeds of a trustee's sale. Once an interpleader action has been filed, thereafter the provisions of this section do not apply. (f) "Due diligence," for the purposes of this section means that the trustee researched the written claims submitted or other evidence of conflicts and determined that a conflict of priorities exists between two or more claimants which the trustee is unable to resolve. (g) To the extent required by the Unclaimed Property Law, a trustee in possession of surplus proceeds not required to be deposited with the court pursuant to subdivision (b) shall comply with the Unclaimed Property Law (Chapter 7 (commencing with Section 1500) of Title 10 of Part 3 of the Code of Civil Procedure). (h) The trustee, beneficiary, or counsel to the trustee or beneficiary, is not liable for providing to any person who is entitled to notice pursuant to this section, information set forth in, or a copy of, subdivision (h) of Section 2945.3. 2924k. (a) The trustee, or the clerk of the court upon order to the clerk pursuant to subdivision (d) of Section 2924j, shall distribute the proceeds, or a portion of the proceeds, as the case may be, of the trustee's sale conducted pursuant to Section 2924h in the following order of priority: (1) To the costs and expenses of exercising the power of sale and of sale, including the payment of the trustee's fees and attorney's fees permitted pursuant to subdivision (b) of Section 2924d and subdivision (b) of this section. (2) To the payment of the obligations secured by the deed of trust or mortgage which is the subject of the trustee's sale. (3) To satisfy the outstanding balance of obligations secured by any junior liens or encumbrances in the order of their priority. (4) To the trustor or the trustor's successor in interest. In the event the property is sold or transferred to another, to the vested owner of record at the time of the trustee's sale. (b) A trustee may charge costs and expenses incurred for such items as mailing and a reasonable fee for services rendered in connection with the distribution of the proceeds from a trustee's sale, including, but not limited to, the investigation of priority and validity of claims and the disbursement of funds. If the fee charged for services rendered pursuant to this subdivision does not exceed one hundred dollars ($100), or one hundred twenty-five dollars ($125) where there are obligations specified in paragraph (3) of subdivision (a), the fee is conclusively presumed to be reasonable. 2924l. (a) In the event that a trustee under a deed of trust is named in an action or proceeding in which that deed of trust is the subject, and in the event that the trustee maintains a reasonable belief that it has been named in the action or proceeding solely in its capacity as trustee, and not arising out of any wrongful acts or omissions on its part in the performance of its duties as trustee, then, at any time, the trustee may file a declaration of nonmonetary status. The declaration shall be served on the parties in the manner set forth in Chapter 5 (commencing with Section 1010) of Title 14 of the Code of Civil Procedure. (b) The declaration of nonmonetary status shall set forth the status of the trustee as trustee under the deed of trust that is the subject of the action or proceeding, that the trustee knows or maintains a reasonable belief that it has been named as a defendant in the proceeding solely in its capacity as a trustee under the deed of trust, its reasonable belief that it has not been named as a defendant due to any acts or omissions on its part in the performance of its duties as trustee, the basis for that knowledge or reasonable belief, and that it agrees to be bound by whatever order or judgment is issued by the court regarding the subject deed of trust. (c) The parties who have appeared in the action or proceeding shall have 15 days from the service of the declaration by the trustee in which to object to the nonmonetary judgment status of the trustee. Any objection shall set forth the factual basis on which the objection is based and shall be served on the trustee. (d) In the event that no objection is served within the 15-day objection period, the trustee shall not be required to participate any further in the action or proceeding, shall not be subject to any monetary awards as and for damages, attorneys' fees or costs, shall be required to respond to any discovery requests as a nonparty, and shall be bound by any court order relating to the subject deed of trust that is the subject of the action or proceeding. (e) In the event of a timely objection to the declaration of nonmonetary status, the trustee shall thereafter be required to participate in the action or proceeding. Additionally, in the event that the parties elect not to, or fail to, timely object to the declaration of nonmonetary status, but later through discovery, or otherwise, determine that the trustee should participate in the action because of the performance of its duties as a trustee, the parties may file and serve on all parties and the trustee a motion pursuant to Section 473 of the Code of Civil Procedure that specifies the factual basis for the demand. Upon the court's granting of the motion, the trustee shall thereafter be required to participate in the action or proceeding, and the court shall provide sufficient time prior to trial for the trustee to be able to respond to the complaint, to conduct discovery, and to bring other pretrial motions in accordance with the Code of Civil Procedure. (f) Upon the filing of the declaration of nonmonetary status, the time within which the trustee is required to file an answer or other responsive pleading shall be tolled for the period of time within which the opposing parties may respond to the declaration. Upon the timely service of an objection to the declaration on nonmonetary status, the trustee shall have 30 days from the date of service within which to file an answer or other responsive pleading to the complaint or cross-complaint. (g) For purposes of this section, "trustee" includes any agent or employee of the trustee who performs some or all of the duties of a trustee under this article, and includes substituted trustees and agents of the beneficiary or trustee. 2925. The fact that a transfer was made subject to defeasance on a condition, may, for the purpose of showing such transfer to be a mortgage, be proved (except as against a subsequent purchaser or incumbrancer for value and without notice), though the fact does not appear by the terms of the instrument. 2926. A mortgage is a lien upon everything that would pass by a grant of the property. 2927. A mortgage does not entitle the mortgagee to the possession of the property, unless authorized by the express terms of the mortgage; but after the execution of the mortgage the mortgagor may agree to such change of possession without a new consideration. 2928. A mortgage does not bind the mortgagor personally to perform the act for the performance of which it is a security, unless there is an express covenant therein to that effect. 2929. No person whose interest is subject to the lien of a mortgage may do any act which will substantially impair the mortgagee's security. 2929.3. (a) (1) A legal owner shall maintain vacant residential property purchased by that owner at a foreclosure sale, or acquired by that owner through foreclosure under a mortgage or deed of trust. A governmental entity may impose a civil fine of up to one thousand dollars ($1,000) per day for a violation. If the governmental entity chooses to impose a fine pursuant to this section, it shall give notice of the alleged violation, including a description of the conditions that gave rise to the allegation, and notice of the entity' s intent to assess a civil fine if action to correct the violation is not commenced within a period of not less than 14 days and completed within a period of not less than 30 days. The notice shall be mailed to the address provided in the deed or other instrument as specified in subdivision (a) of Section 27321.5 of the Government Code, or, if none, to the return address provided on the deed or other instrument. (2) The governmental entity shall provide a period of not less than 30 days for the legal owner to remedy the violation prior to imposing a civil fine and shall allow for a hearing and opportunity to contest any fine imposed. In determining the amount of the fine, the governmental entity shall take into consideration any timely and good faith efforts by the legal owner to remedy the violation. The maximum civil fine authorized by this section is one thousand dollars ($1,000) for each day that the owner fails to maintain the property, commencing on the day following the expiration of the period to remedy the violation established by the governmental entity. (3) Subject to the provisions of this section, a governmental entity may establish different compliance periods for different conditions on the same property in the notice of alleged violation mailed to the legal owner. (b) For purposes of this section, "failure to maintain" means failure to care for the exterior of the property, including, but not limited to, permitting excessive foliage growth that diminishes the value of surrounding properties, failing to take action to prevent trespassers or squatters from remaining on the property, or failing to take action to prevent mosquito larvae from growing in standing water or other conditions that create a public nuisance. (c) Notwithstanding subdivisions (a) and (b), a governmental entity may provide less than 30 days' notice to remedy a condition before imposing a civil fine if the entity determines that a specific condition of the property threatens public health or safety and provided that notice of that determination and time for compliance is given. (d) Fines and penalties collected pursuant to this section shall be directed to local nuisance abatement programs. (e) A governmental entity may not impose fines on a legal owner under both this section and a local ordinance. (f) These provisions shall not preempt any local ordinance. (g) This section shall only apply to residential real property. (h) The rights and remedies provided in this section are cumulative and in addition to any other rights and remedies provided by law. (i) This section shall remain in effect only until January 1, 2013, and as of that date is repealed, unless a later enacted statute, that is enacted before January 1, 2013, deletes or extends that date. 2929.5. (a) A secured lender may enter and inspect the real property security for the purpose of determining the existence, location, nature, and magnitude of any past or present release or threatened release of any hazardous substance into, onto, beneath, or from the real property security on either of the following: (1) Upon reasonable belief of the existence of a past or present release or threatened release of any hazardous substance into, onto, beneath, or from the real property security not previously disclosed in writing to the secured lender in conjunction with the making, renewal, or modification of a loan, extension of credit, guaranty, or other obligation involving the borrower. (2) After the commencement of nonjudicial or judicial foreclosure proceedings against the real property security. (b) The secured lender shall not abuse the right of entry and inspection or use it to harass the borrower or tenant of the property. Except in case of an emergency, when the borrower or tenant of the property has abandoned the premises, or if it is impracticable to do so, the secured lender shall give the borrower or tenant of the property reasonable notice of the secured lender's intent to enter, and enter only during the borrower's or tenant's normal business hours. Twenty-four hours' notice shall be presumed to be reasonable notice in the absence of evidence to the contrary. (c) The secured lender shall reimburse the borrower for the cost of repair of any physical injury to the real property security caused by the entry and inspection. (d) If a secured lender is refused the right of entry and inspection by the borrower or tenant of the property, or is otherwise unable to enter and inspect the property without a breach of the peace, the secured lender may, upon petition, obtain an order from a court of competent jurisdiction to exercise the secured lender's rights under subdivision (a), and that action shall not constitute an action within the meaning of subdivision (a) of Section 726 of the Code of Civil Procedure. (e) For purposes of this section: (1) "Borrower" means the trustor under a deed of trust, or a mortgagor under a mortgage, where the deed of trust or mortgage encumbers real property security and secures the performance of the trustor or mortgagor under a loan, extension of credit, guaranty, or other obligation. The term includes any successor-in-interest of the trustor or mortgagor to the real property security before the deed of trust or mortgage has been discharged, reconveyed, or foreclosed upon. (2) "Hazardous substance" includes all of the following: (A) Any "hazardous substance" as defined in subdivision (h) of Section 25281 of the Health and Safety Code. (B) Any "waste" as defined in subdivision (d) of Section 13050 of the Water Code. (C) Petroleum, including crude oil or any fraction thereof, natural gas, natural gas liquids, liquefied natural gas, or synthetic gas usable for fuel, or any mixture thereof. (3) "Real property security" means any real property and improvements, other than a separate interest and any related interest in the common area of a residential common interest development, as the terms "separate interest," "common area," and "common interest development" are defined in Section 1351, or real property consisting of one acre or less which contains 1 to 15 dwelling units. (4) "Release" means any spilling, leaking, pumping, pouring, emitting, emptying, discharging, injecting, escaping, leaching, dumping, or disposing into the environment, including continuing migration, of hazardous substances into, onto, or through soil, surface water, or groundwater. (5) "Secured lender" means the beneficiary under a deed of trust against the real property security, or the mortgagee under a mortgage against the real property security, and any successor-in-interest of the beneficiary or mortgagee to the deed of trust or mortgage. [2930.] Section Twenty-nine Hundred and Thirty. Title acquired by the mortgagor subsequent to the execution of the mortgage, inures to the mortgagee as security for the debt in like manner as if acquired before the execution. 2931. A mortgagee may foreclose the right of redemption of the mortgagor in the manner prescribed by the CODE OF CIVIL PROCEDURE. 2931a. In any action brought to determine conflicting claims to real property, or for partition of real property or an estate for years therein, or to foreclose a deed of trust, mortgage, or other lien upon real property, or in all eminent domain proceedings under Section 1250.110 et seq., of the Code of Civil Procedure against real property upon which exists a lien to secure the payment of taxes or other obligations to an agency of the State of California, other than ad valorem taxes upon the real property, the state agency charged with the collection of the tax obligation may be made a party. In such an action, the court shall have jurisdiction to determine the priority and effect of the liens described in the complaint in or upon the real property or estate for years therein, but the jurisdiction of the court in the action shall not include a determination of the validity of the tax giving rise to the lien or claim of lien. The complaint or petition in the action shall contain a description of the lien sufficient to enable the tax or other obligation, payment of which it secures, to be identified with certainty, and shall include the name and address of the person owing the tax or other obligation, the name of the state agency that recorded the lien, and the date and place where the lien was recorded. Services of process in the action shall be made upon the agency, officer, board, commission, department, division, or other body charged with the collection of the tax or obligation. It shall be the duty of the Attorney General to represent the state agency in the action. 2931b. In all actions in which the State of California is named a party pursuant to the provisions of Section 2931a and in which real property or an estate for years therein is sought to be sold, the Attorney General may, with the consent of the Department of Finance, bid upon and purchase that real property or estate for years. 2931c. The Attorney General may bring an action in the courts of this or any other state or of the United States to enforce any lien to secure the payment of taxes or other obligations to the State of California under the Unemployment Insurance Code, the Revenue and Taxation Code, or Chapter 6 (commencing with Section 16180) of Part 1 of Division 4 of Title 2 of the Government Code or to subject to payment of the liability giving rise to the lien any property in which the debtor has any right, title, or interest. In any action brought under this section the court shall have jurisdiction to determine the priority and effect of the lien in or upon the property, but the jurisdiction of the court in such action shall not extend to a determination of the validity of the liability giving rise to the lien. 2932. A power of sale may be conferred by a mortgage upon the mortgagee or any other person, to be exercised after a breach of the obligation for which the mortgage is a security. 2932.5. Where a power to sell real property is given to a mortgagee, or other encumbrancer, in an instrument intended to secure the payment of money, the power is part of the security and vests in any person who by assignment becomes entitled to payment of the money secured by the instrument. The power of sale may be exercised by the assignee if the assignment is duly acknowledged and recorded. 2932.6. (a) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, a financial institution may undertake to repair any property acquired through foreclosure under a mortgage or deed of trust. (b) As used in this section, the term "financial institution" includes, but is not limited to, banks, savings associations, credit unions, and industrial loan companies. (c) The rights granted to a financial institution by this section are in addition to, and not in derogation of, the rights of a financial institution which otherwise exist. 2933. A power of attorney to execute a mortgage must be in writing, subscribed, acknowledged, or proved, certified, and recorded in like manner as powers of attorney for grants of real property. 2934. Any assignment of a mortgage and any assignment of the beneficial interest under a deed of trust may be recorded, and from the time the same is filed for record operates as constructive notice of the contents thereof to all persons; and any instrument by which any mortgage or deed of trust of, lien upon or interest in real property, (or by which any mortgage of, lien upon or interest in personal property a document evidencing or creating which is required or permitted by law to be recorded), is subordinated or waived as to priority may be recorded, and from the time the same is filed for record operates as constructive notice of the contents thereof, to all persons. 2934a. (a) (1) The trustee under a trust deed upon real property or an estate for years therein given to secure an obligation to pay money and conferring no other duties upon the trustee than those which are incidental to the exercise of the power of sale therein conferred, may be substituted by the recording in the county in which the property is located of a substitution executed and acknowledged by: (A) all of the beneficiaries under the trust deed, or their successors in interest, and the substitution shall be effective notwithstanding any contrary provision in any trust deed executed on or after January 1, 1968; or (B) the holders of more than 50 percent of the record beneficial interest of a series of notes secured by the same real property or of undivided interests in a note secured by real property equivalent to a series transaction, exclusive of any notes or interests of a licensed real estate broker that is the issuer or servicer of the notes or interests or of any affiliate of that licensed real estate broker. (2) A substitution executed pursuant to subparagraph (B) of paragraph (1) is not effective unless all the parties signing the substitution sign, under penalty of perjury, a separate written document stating the following: (A) The substitution has been signed pursuant to subparagraph (B) of paragraph (1). (B) None of the undersigned is a licensed real estate broker or an affiliate of the broker that is the issuer or servicer of the obligation secured by the deed of trust. (C) The undersigned together hold more than 50 percent of the record beneficial interest of a series of notes secured by the same real property or of undivided interests in a note secured by real property equivalent to a series transaction. (D) Notice of the substitution was sent by certified mail, postage prepaid, with return receipt requested to each holder of an interest in the obligation secured by the deed of trust who has not joined in the execution of the substitution or the separate document. The separate document shall be attached to the substitution and be recorded in the office of the county recorder of each county in which the real property described in the deed of trust is located. Once the document required by this paragraph is recorded, it shall constitute conclusive evidence of compliance with the requirements of this paragraph in favor of substituted trustees acting pursuant to this section, subsequent assignees of the obligation secured by the deed of trust, and subsequent bona fide purchasers or encumbrancers for value of the real property described therein. (3) For purposes of this section, "affiliate of the licensed real estate broker" includes any person as defined in Section 25013 of the Corporations Code that is controlled by, or is under common control with, or who controls, a licensed real estate broker. "Control" means the possession, direct or indirect, of the power to direct or cause the direction of management and policies. (4) The substitution shall contain the date of recordation of the trust deed, the name of the trustor, the book and page or instrument number where the trust deed is recorded, and the name of the new trustee. From the time the substitution is filed for record, the new trustee shall succeed to all the powers, duties, authority, and title granted and delegated to the trustee named in the deed of trust. A substitution may be accomplished, with respect to multiple deeds of trust which are recorded in the same county in which the substitution is being recorded and which all have the same trustee and beneficiary or beneficiaries, by recording a single document, complying with the requirements of this section, substituting trustees for all those deeds of trust. (b) If the substitution is effected after a notice of default has been recorded but prior to the recording of the notice of sale, the beneficiary or beneficiaries shall cause a copy of the substitution to be mailed, prior to the recording thereof, in the manner provided in Section 2924b, to the trustee then of record and to all persons to whom a copy of the notice of default would be required to be mailed by the provisions of Section 2924b. An affidavit shall be attached to the substitution that notice has been given to those persons and in the manner required by this subdivision. (c) Notwithstanding any provision of this section or any provision in any deed of trust, unless a new notice of sale containing the name, street address, and telephone number of the substituted trustee is given pursuant to Section 2924f, any sale conducted by the substituted trustee shall be void. (d) This section shall remain in effect only until January 1, 1998, and shall have no force or effect after that date, unless a later enacted statute, which is enacted before January 1, 1998, deletes or extends that date. 2934a. (a) (1) The trustee under a trust deed upon real property or an estate for years therein given to secure an obligation to pay money and conferring no other duties upon the trustee than those which are incidental to the exercise of the power of sale therein conferred, may be substituted by the recording in the county in which the property is located of a substitution executed and acknowledged by: (A) all of the beneficiaries under the trust deed, or their successors in interest, and the substitution shall be effective notwithstanding any contrary provision in any trust deed executed on or after January 1, 1968; or (B) the holders of more than 50 percent of the record beneficial interest of a series of notes secured by the same real property or of undivided interests in a note secured by real property equivalent to a series transaction, exclusive of any notes or interests of a licensed real estate broker that is the issuer or servicer of the notes or interests or of any affiliate of that licensed real estate broker. (2) A substitution executed pursuant to subparagraph (B) of paragraph (1) is not effective unless all the parties signing the substitution sign, under penalty of perjury, a separate written document stating the following: (A) The substitution has been signed pursuant to subparagraph (B) of paragraph (1). (B) None of the undersigned is a licensed real estate broker or an affiliate of the broker that is the issuer or servicer of the obligation secured by the deed of trust. (C) The undersigned together hold more than 50 percent of the record beneficial interest of a series of notes secured by the same real property or of undivided interests in a note secured by real property equivalent to a series transaction. (D) Notice of the substitution was sent by certified mail, postage prepaid, with return receipt requested to each holder of an interest in the obligation secured by the deed of trust who has not joined in the execution of the substitution or the separate document. The separate document shall be attached to the substitution and be recorded in the office of the county recorder of each county in which the real property described in the deed of trust is located. Once the document required by this paragraph is recorded, it shall constitute conclusive evidence of compliance with the requirements of this paragraph in favor of substituted trustees acting pursuant to this section, subsequent assignees of the obligation secured by the deed of trust and subsequent bona fide purchasers or encumbrancers for value of the real property described therein. (3) For purposes of this section, "affiliate of the licensed real estate broker" includes any person as defined in Section 25013 of the Corporations Code that is controlled by, or is under common control with, or who controls, a licensed real estate broker. "Control" means the possession, direct or indirect, of the power to direct or cause the direction of management and policies. (4) The substitution shall contain the date of recordation of the trust deed, the name of the trustor, the book and page or instrument number where the trust deed is recorded, and the name of the new trustee. From the time the substitution is filed for record, the new trustee shall succeed to all the powers, duties, authority, and title granted and delegated to the trustee named in the deed of trust. A substitution may be accomplished, with respect to multiple deeds of trust which are recorded in the same county in which the substitution is being recorded and which all have the same trustee and beneficiary or beneficiaries, by recording a single document, complying with the requirements of this section, substituting trustees for all those deeds of trust. (b) If the substitution is executed, but not recorded, prior to or concurrently with the recording of the notice of default, the beneficiary or beneficiaries or their authorized agents shall cause notice of the substitution to be mailed prior to or concurrently with the recording thereof, in the manner provided in Section 2924b, to all persons to whom a copy of the notice of default would be required to be mailed by the provisions of Section 2924b. An affidavit shall be attached to the substitution that notice has been given to those persons and in the manner required by this subdivision. (c) If the substitution is effected after a notice of default has been recorded but prior to the recording of the notice of sale, the beneficiary or beneficiaries or their authorized agents shall cause a copy of the substitution to be mailed, prior to, or concurrently with, the recording thereof, in the manner provided in Section 2924b, to the trustee then of record and to all persons to whom a copy of the notice of default would be required to be mailed by the provisions of Section 2924b. An affidavit shall be attached to the substitution that notice has been given to those persons and in the manner required by this subdivision. (d) A trustee named in a recorded substitution of trustee shall be deemed to be authorized to act as the trustee under the mortgage or deed of trust for all purposes from the date the substitution is executed by the mortgagee, beneficiaries, or by their authorized agents. Nothing herein requires that a trustee under a recorded substitution accept the substitution. Once recorded, the substitution shall constitute conclusive evidence of the authority of the substituted trustee or his or her agents to act pursuant to this section. (e) Notwithstanding any provision of this section or any provision in any deed of trust, unless a new notice of sale containing the name, street address, and telephone number of the substituted trustee is given pursuant to Section 2924f after execution of the substitution, any sale conducted by the substituted trustee shall be void. (f) This section shall become operative on January 1, 1998. 2934b. Sections 15643 and 18102 of the Probate Code apply to trustees under deeds of trust given to secure obligations. 2935. When a mortgage or deed of trust is executed as security for money due or to become due, on a promissory note, bond, or other instrument, designated in the mortgage or deed of trust, the record of the assignment of the mortgage or of the assignment of the beneficial interest under the deed of trust, is not of itself notice to the debtor, his heirs, or personal representatives, so as to invalidate any payment made by them, or any of them, to the person holding such note, bond, or other instrument. 2936. The assignment of a debt secured by mortgage carries with it the security. 2937. (a) The Legislature hereby finds and declares that borrowers or subsequent obligors have the right to know when a person holding a promissory note, bond, or other instrument transfers servicing of the indebtedness secured by a mortgage or deed of trust on real property containing one to four residential units located in this state. The Legislature also finds that notification to the borrower or subsequent obligor of the transfer may protect the borrower or subsequent obligor from fraudulent business practices and may ensure timely payments. It is the intent of the Legislature in enacting this section to mandate that a borrower or subsequent obligor be given written notice when a person transfers the servicing of the indebtedness on notes, bonds, or other instruments secured by a mortgage or deed of trust on real property containing one to four residential units and located in this state. (b) Any person transferring the servicing of indebtedness as provided in subdivision (a) to a different servicing agent and any person assuming from another responsibility for servicing the instrument evidencing indebtedness, shall give written notice to the borrower or subsequent obligor before the borrower or subsequent obligor becomes obligated to make payments to a new servicing agent. (c) In the event a notice of default has been recorded or a judicial foreclosure proceeding has been commenced, the person transferring the servicing of the indebtedness and the person assuming from another the duty of servicing the indebtedness shall give written notice to the trustee or attorney named in the notice of default or judicial foreclosure of the transfer. A notice of default, notice of sale, or judicial foreclosure shall not be invalidated solely because the servicing agent is changed during the foreclosure process. (d) Any person transferring the servicing of indebtedness as provided in subdivision (a) to a different servicing agent shall provide to the new servicing agent all existing insurance policy information that the person is responsible for maintaining, including, but not limited to, flood and hazard insurance policy information. (e) The notices required by subdivision (b) shall be sent by first-class mail, postage prepaid, to the borrower's or subsequent obligor's address designated for loan payment billings, or if escrow is pending, as provided in the escrow, and shall contain each of the following: (1) The name and address of the person to which the transfer of the servicing of the indebtedness is made. (2) The date the transfer was or will be completed. (3) The address where all payments pursuant to the transfer are to be made. (f) Any person assuming from another responsibility for servicing the instrument evidencing indebtedness shall include in the notice required by subdivision (b) a statement of the due date of the next payment. (g) The borrower or subsequent obligor shall not be liable to the holder of the note, bond, or other instrument or to any servicing agent for payments made to the previous servicing agent or for late charges if these payments were made prior to the borrower or subsequent obligor receiving written notice of the transfer as provided by subdivision (e) and the payments were otherwise on time. (h) For purposes of this section, the term servicing agent shall not include a trustee exercising a power of sale pursuant to a deed of trust. 2937.7. In any action affecting the interest of any trustor or beneficiary under a deed of trust or mortgage, service of process to the trustee does not constitute service to the trustor or beneficiary and does not impose any obligation on the trustee to notify the trustor or beneficiary of the action. 2938. (a) A written assignment of an interest in leases, rents, issues, or profits of real property made in connection with an obligation secured by real property, irrespective of whether the assignment is denoted as absolute, absolute conditioned upon default, additional security for an obligation, or otherwise, shall, upon execution and delivery by the assignor, be effective to create a present security interest in existing and future leases, rents, issues, or profits of that real property. As used in this section, "leases, rents, issues, and profits of real property" includes the cash proceeds thereof. "Cash proceeds" means cash, checks, deposit accounts, and the like. (b) An assignment of an interest in leases, rents, issues, or profits of real property may be recorded in the records of the county recorder in the county in which the underlying real property is located in the same manner as any other conveyance of an interest in real property, whether the assignment is in a separate document or part of a mortgage or deed of trust, and when so duly recorded in accordance with the methods, procedures, and requirements for recordation of conveyances of other interests in real property, (1) the assignment shall be deemed to give constructive notice of the content of the assignment with the same force and effect as any other duly recorded conveyance of an interest in real property and (2) the interest granted by the assignment shall be deemed fully perfected as of the time of recordation with the same force and effect as any other duly recorded conveyance of an interest in real property, notwithstanding a provision of the assignment or a provision of law that would otherwise preclude or defer enforcement of the rights granted the assignee under the assignment until the occurrence of a subsequent event, including, but not limited to, a subsequent default of the assignor, or the assignee's obtaining possession of the real property or the appointment of a receiver. (c) Upon default of the assignor under the obligation secured by the assignment of leases, rents, issues, and profits, the assignee shall be entitled to enforce the assignment in accordance with this section. On and after the date the assignee takes one or more of the enforcement steps described in this subdivision, the assignee shall be entitled to collect and receive all rents, issues, and profits that have accrued but remain unpaid and uncollected by the assignor or its agent or for the assignor's benefit on that date, and all rents, issues, and profits that accrue on or after the date. The assignment shall be enforced by one or more of the following: (1) The appointment of a receiver. (2) Obtaining possession of the rents, issues, or profits. (3) Delivery to any one or more of the tenants of a written demand for turnover of rents, issues, and profits in the form specified in subdivision (k), a copy of which demand shall also be delivered to the assignor; and a copy of which shall be mailed to all other assignees of record of the leases, rents, issues, and profits of the real property at the address for notices provided in the assignment or, if none, to the address to which the recorded assignment was to be mailed after recording. (4) Delivery to the assignor of a written demand for the rents, issues, or profits, a copy of which shall be mailed to all other assignees of record of the leases, rents, issues, and profits of the real property at the address for notices provided in the assignment or, if none, to the address to which the recorded assignment was to be mailed after recording. Moneys received by the assignee pursuant to this subdivision, net of amounts paid pursuant to subdivision (g), if any, shall be applied by the assignee to the debt or otherwise in accordance with the assignment or the promissory note, deed of trust, or other instrument evidencing the obligation, provided, however, that neither the application nor the failure to so apply the rents, issues, or profits shall result in a loss of any lien or security interest that the assignee may have in the underlying real property or any other collateral, render the obligation unenforceable, constitute a violation of Section 726 of the Code of Civil Procedure, or otherwise limit a right available to the assignee with respect to its security. (d) If an assignee elects to take the action provided for under paragraph (3) of subdivision (c), the demand provided for therein shall be signed under penalty of perjury by the assignee or an authorized agent of the assignee and shall be effective as against the tenant when actually received by the tenant at the address for notices provided under the lease or other contractual agreement under which the tenant occupies the property or, if no address for notices is so provided, at the property. Upon receipt of this demand, the tenant shall be obligated to pay to the assignee all rents, issues, and profits that are past due and payable on the date of receipt of the demand, and all rents, issues, and profits coming due under the lease following the date of receipt of the demand, unless either of the following occurs: (1) The tenant has previously received a demand that is valid on its face from another assignee of the leases, issues, rents, and profits sent by the other assignee in accordance with this subdivision and subdivision (c). (2) The tenant, in good faith and in a manner that is not inconsistent with the lease, has previously paid, or within 10 days following receipt of the demand notice pays, the rent to the assignor. Payment of rent to an assignee following a demand under an assignment of leases, rents, issues, and profits shall satisfy the tenant's obligation to pay the amounts under the lease. If a tenant pays rent to the assignor after receipt of a demand other than under the circumstances described in this subdivision, the tenant shall not be discharged of the obligation to pay rent to the assignee, unless the tenant occupies the property for residential purposes. The obligation of a tenant to pay rent pursuant to this subdivision and subdivision (c) shall continue until receipt by the tenant of a written notice from a court directing the tenant to pay the rent in a different manner or receipt by the tenant of a written notice from the assignee from whom the demand was received canceling the demand, whichever occurs first. This subdivision does not affect the entitlement to rents, issues, or profits as between assignees as set forth in subdivision (h). (e) An enforcement action of the type authorized by subdivision (c), and a collection, distribution, or application of rents, issues, or profits by the assignee following an enforcement action of the type authorized by subdivision (c), shall not do any of the following: (1) Make the assignee a mortgagee in possession of the property, except if the assignee obtains actual possession of the real property, or an agent of the assignor. (2) Constitute an action, render the obligation unenforceable, violate Section 726 of the Code of Civil Procedure, or, other than with respect to marshaling requirements, otherwise limit any rights available to the assignee with respect to its security. (3) Be deemed to create a bar to a deficiency judgment pursuant to a provision of law governing or relating to deficiency judgments following the enforcement of any encumbrance, lien, or security interest, notwithstanding that the action, collection, distribution, or application may reduce the indebtedness secured by the assignment or by a deed of trust or other security instrument. The application of rents, issues, or profits to the secured obligation shall satisfy the secured obligation to the extent of those rents, issues, or profits, and, notwithstanding any provisions of the assignment or other loan documents to the contrary, shall be credited against any amounts necessary to cure any monetary default for purposes of reinstatement under Section 2924c. (f) If cash proceeds of rents, issues, or profits to which the assignee is entitled following enforcement as set forth in subdivision (c) are received by the assignor or its agent for collection or by another person who has collected such rents, issues, or profits for the assignor's benefit, or for the benefit of a subsequent assignee under the circumstances described in subdivision (h), following the taking by the assignee of either of the enforcement actions authorized in paragraph (3) or (4) of subdivision (c), and the assignee has not authorized the assignor's disposition of the cash proceeds in a writing signed by the assignee, the rights to the cash proceeds and to the recovery of the cash proceeds shall be determined by the following: (1) The assignee shall be entitled to an immediate turnover of the cash proceeds received by the assignor or its agent for collection or any other person who has collected the rents, issues, or profits for the assignor's benefit, or for the benefit of a subsequent assignee under the circumstances described in subdivision (h), and the assignor or other described party in possession of those cash proceeds shall turn over the full amount of cash proceeds to the assignee, less any amount representing payment of expenses authorized by the assignee in writing. The assignee shall have a right to bring an action for recovery of the cash proceeds, and to recover the cash proceeds, without the necessity of bringing an action to foreclose a security interest that it may have in the real property. This action shall not violate Section 726 of the Code of Civil Procedure or otherwise limit a right available to the assignee with respect to its security. (2) As between an assignee with an interest in cash proceeds perfected in the manner set forth in subdivision (b) and enforced in accordance with paragraph (3) or (4) of subdivision (c) and another person claiming an interest in the cash proceeds, other than the assignor or its agent for collection or one collecting rents, issues, and profits for the benefit of the assignor, and subject to subdivision (h), the assignee shall have a continuously perfected security interest in the cash proceeds to the extent that the cash proceeds are identifiable. For purposes hereof, cash proceeds are identifiable if they are either (A) segregated or (B) if commingled with other funds of the assignor or its agent or one acting on its behalf, can be traced using the lowest intermediate balance principle, unless the assignor or other party claiming an interest in proceeds shows that some other method of tracing would better serve the interests of justice and equity under the circumstances of the case. The provisions of this paragraph are subject to any generally applicable law with respect to payments made in the operation of the assignor's business. (g) (1) If the assignee enforces the assignment under subdivision (c) by means other than the appointment of a receiver and receives rents, issues, or profits pursuant to this enforcement, the assignor or another assignee of the affected real property may make written demand upon the assignee to pay the reasonable costs of protecting and preserving the property, including payment of taxes and insurance and compliance with building and housing codes, if any. (2) On and after the date of receipt of the demand, the assignee shall pay for the reasonable costs of protecting and preserving the real property to the extent of any rents, issues, or profits actually received by the assignee, provided, however, that no such acts by the assignee shall cause the assignee to become a mortgagee in possession and the assignee's duties under this subdivision, upon receipt of a demand from the assignor or any other assignee of the leases, rents, issues, and profits pursuant to paragraph (1), shall not be construed to require the assignee to operate or manage the property, which obligation shall remain that of the assignor. (3) The obligation of the assignee hereunder shall continue until the earlier of (A) the date on which the assignee obtains the appointment of a receiver for the real property pursuant to application to a court of competent jurisdiction, or (B) the date on which the assignee ceases to enforce the assignment. (4) This subdivision does not supersede or diminish the right of the assignee to the appointment of a receiver. (h) The lien priorities, rights, and interests among creditors concerning rents, issues, or profits collected before the enforcement by the assignee shall be governed by subdivisions (a) and (b). Without limiting the generality of the foregoing, if an assignee who has recorded its interest in leases, rents, issues, and profits prior to the recordation of that interest by a subsequent assignee seeks to enforce its interest in those rents, issues, or profits in accordance with this section after any enforcement action has been taken by a subsequent assignee, the prior assignee shall be entitled only to the rents, issues, and profits that are accrued and unpaid as of the date of its enforcement action and unpaid rents, issues, and profits accruing thereafter. The prior assignee shall have no right to rents, issues, or profits paid prior to the date of the enforcement action, whether in the hands of the assignor or any subsequent assignee. Upon receipt of notice that the prior assignee has enforced its interest in the rents, issues, and profits, the subsequent assignee shall immediately send a notice to any tenant to whom it has given notice under subdivision (c). The notice shall inform the tenant that the subsequent assignee cancels its demand that the tenant pay rent to the subsequent assignee. (i) (1) This section shall apply to contracts entered into on or after January 1, 1997. (2) Sections 2938 and 2938.1, as these sections were in effect prior to January 1, 1997, shall govern contracts entered into prior to January 1, 1997, and shall govern actions and proceedings initiated on the basis of these contracts. (j) "Real property," as used in this section, means real property or any estate or interest therein. (k) The demand required by paragraph (3) of subdivision (c) shall be in the following form: DEMAND TO PAY RENT TO PARTY OTHER THAN LANDLORD (SECTION 2938 OF THE CIVIL CODE) Tenant: [Name of Tenant] Property Occupied by Tenant: [Address] Landlord: [Name of Landlord] Secured Party: [Name of Secured Party] Address: [Address for Payment of Rent to Secured Party and for Further Information]: The secured party named above is the assignee of leases, rents, issues, and profits under [name of document] dated ______, and recorded at [recording information] in the official records of ___________ County, California. You may request a copy of the assignment from the secured party at ____ (address). THIS NOTICE AFFECTS YOUR LEASE OR RENTAL AGREEMENT RIGHTS AND OBLIGATIONS. YOU ARE THEREFORE ADVISED TO CONSULT AN ATTORNEY CONCERNING THOSE RIGHTS AND OBLIGATIONS IF YOU HAVE ANY QUESTIONS REGARDING YOUR RIGHTS AND OBLIGATIONS UNDER THIS NOTICE. IN ACCORDANCE WITH SUBDIVISION (C) OF SECTION 2938 OF THE CIVIL CODE, YOU ARE HEREBY DIRECTED TO PAY TO THE SECURED PARTY, ____ (NAME OF SECURED PARTY) AT ____ (ADDRESS), ALL RENTS UNDER YOUR LEASE OR OTHER RENTAL AGREEMENT WITH THE LANDLORD OR PREDECESSOR IN INTEREST OF LANDLORD, FOR THE OCCUPANCY OF THE PROPERTY AT ____ (ADDRESS OF RENTAL PREMISES) WHICH ARE PAST DUE AND PAYABLE ON THE DATE YOU RECEIVE THIS DEMAND, AND ALL RENTS COMING DUE UNDER THE LEASE OR OTHER RENTAL AGREEMENT FOLLOWING THE DATE YOU RECEIVE THIS DEMAND UNLESS YOU HAVE ALREADY PAID THIS RENT TO THE LANDLORD IN GOOD FAITH AND IN A MANNER NOT INCONSISTENT WITH THE AGREEMENT BETWEEN YOU AND THE LANDLORD. IN THIS CASE, THIS DEMAND NOTICE SHALL REQUIRE YOU TO PAY TO THE SECURED PARTY, ____ (NAME OF THE SECURED PARTY), ALL RENTS THAT COME DUE FOLLOWING THE DATE OF THE PAYMENT TO THE LANDLORD. IF YOU PAY THE RENT TO THE UNDERSIGNED SECURED PARTY, ____ (NAME OF SECURED PARTY), IN ACCORDANCE WITH THIS NOTICE, YOU DO NOT HAVE TO PAY THE RENT TO THE LANDLORD. YOU WILL NOT BE SUBJECT TO DAMAGES OR OBLIGATED TO PAY RENT TO THE SECURED PARTY IF YOU HAVE PREVIOUSLY RECEIVED A DEMAND OF THIS TYPE FROM A DIFFERENT SECURED PARTY. [For other than residential tenants] IF YOU PAY RENT TO THE LANDLORD THAT BY THE TERMS OF THIS DEMAND YOU ARE REQUIRED TO PAY TO THE SECURED PARTY, YOU MAY BE SUBJECT TO DAMAGES INCURRED BY THE SECURED PARTY BY REASON OF YOUR FAILURE TO COMPLY WITH THIS DEMAND, AND YOU MAY NOT BE DISCHARGED FROM YOUR OBLIGATION TO PAY THAT RENT TO THE SECURED PARTY. YOU WILL NOT BE SUBJECT TO THOSE DAMAGES OR OBLIGATED TO PAY THAT RENT TO THE SECURED PARTY IF YOU HAVE PREVIOUSLY RECEIVED A DEMAND OF THIS TYPE FROM A DIFFERENT ASSIGNEE. Your obligation to pay rent under this demand shall continue until you receive either (1) a written notice from a court directing you to pay the rent in a manner provided therein, or (2) a written notice from the secured party named above canceling this demand. The undersigned hereby certifies, under penalty of perjury, that the undersigned is an authorized officer or agent of the secured party and that the secured party is the assignee, or the current successor to the assignee, under an assignment of leases, rents, issues, or profits executed by the landlord, or a predecessor in interest, that is being enforced pursuant to and in accordance with Section 2938 of the Civil Code. Executed at _________, California, this ____ day of _________, _____. (Secured Party) Name: __________________________ Title: _________________________ 2939. A recorded mortgage must be discharged by a certificate signed by the mortgagee, his personal representatives or assigns, acknowledged or proved and certified as prescribed by the chapter on "recording transfers," stating that the mortgage has been paid, satisfied, or discharged. Reference shall be made in said certificate to the book and page where the mortgage is recorded. 2939.5. Foreign executors, administrators and guardians may satisfy mortgages upon the records of any county in this state, upon producing and recording in the office of the county recorder of the county in which such mortgage is recorded, a duly certified and authenticated copy of their letters testamentary, or of administration or of guardianship, and which certificate or authentication shall also recite that said letters have not been revoked. For the purposes of this section, "guardian" includes a foreign conservator, committee, or comparable fiduciary. 2940. A certificate of the discharge of a mortgage, and the proof or acknowledgment thereof, must be recorded in the office of the county recorder in which the mortgage is recorded. 2941. (a) Within 30 days after any mortgage has been satisfied, the mortgagee or the assignee of the mortgagee shall execute a certificate of the discharge thereof, as provided in Section 2939, and shall record or cause to be recorded in the office of the county recorder in which the mortgage is recorded. The mortgagee shall then deliver, upon the written request of the mortgagor or the mortgagor's heirs, successors, or assignees, as the case may be, the original note and mortgage to the person making the request. (b) (1) Within 30 calendar days after the obligation secured by any deed of trust has been satisfied, the beneficiary or the assignee of the beneficiary shall execute and deliver to the trustee the original note, deed of trust, request for a full reconveyance, and other documents as may be necessary to reconvey, or cause to be reconveyed, the deed of trust. (A) The trustee shall execute the full reconveyance and shall record or cause it to be recorded in the office of the county recorder in which the deed of trust is recorded within 21 calendar days after receipt by the trustee of the original note, deed of trust, request for a full reconveyance, the fee that may be charged pursuant to subdivision (e), recorder's fees, and other documents as may be necessary to reconvey, or cause to be reconveyed, the deed of trust. (B) The trustee shall deliver a copy of the reconveyance to the beneficiary, its successor in interest, or its servicing agent, if known. The reconveyance instrument shall specify one of the following options for delivery of the instrument, the addresses of which the recorder has no duty to validate: (i) The trustor or successor in interest, and that person's last known address, as the person to whom the recorder will deliver the recorded instrument pursuant to Section 27321 of the Government Code. (ii) That the recorder shall deliver the recorded instrument to the trustee's address. If the trustee's address is specified for delivery, the trustee shall mail the recorded instrument to the trustor or the successor in interest to the last known address for that party. (C) Following execution and recordation of the full reconveyance, upon receipt of a written request by the trustor or the trustor's heirs, successors, or assignees, the trustee shall then deliver, or caused to be delivered, the original note and deed of trust to the person making that request. (D) If the note or deed of trust, or any copy of the note or deed of trust, is electronic, upon satisfaction of an obligation secured by a deed of trust, any electronic original, or electronic copy which has not been previously marked solely for use as a copy, of the note and deed of trust, shall be altered to indicate that the obligation is paid in full. (2) If the trustee has failed to execute and record, or cause to be recorded, the full reconveyance within 60 calendar days of satisfaction of the obligation, the beneficiary, upon receipt of a written request by the trustor or trustor's heirs, successor in interest, agent, or assignee, shall execute and acknowledge a document pursuant to Section 2934a substituting itself or another as trustee and issue a full reconveyance. (3) If a full reconveyance has not been executed and recorded pursuant to either paragraph (1) or paragraph (2) within 75 calendar days of satisfaction of the obligation, then a title insurance company may prepare and record a release of the obligation. However, at least 10 days prior to the issuance and recording of a full release pursuant to this paragraph, the title insurance company shall mail by first-class mail with postage prepaid, the intention to release the obligation to the trustee, trustor, and beneficiary of record, or their successor in interest of record, at the last known address. (A) The release shall set forth: (i) The name of the beneficiary. (ii) The name of the trustor. (iii) The recording reference to the deed of trust. (iv) A recital that the obligation secured by the deed of trust has been paid in full. (v) The date and amount of payment. (B) The release issued pursuant to this subdivision shall be entitled to recordation and, when recorded, shall be deemed to be the equivalent of a reconveyance of a deed of trust. (4) Where an obligation secured by a deed of trust was paid in full prior to July 1, 1989, and no reconveyance has been issued and recorded by October 1, 1989, then a release of obligation as provided for in paragraph (3) may be issued. (5) Paragraphs (2) and (3) do not excuse the beneficiary or the trustee from compliance with paragraph (1). Paragraph (3) does not excuse the beneficiary from compliance with paragraph (2). (6) In addition to any other remedy provided by law, a title insurance company preparing or recording the release of the obligation shall be liable to any party for damages, including attorney's fees, which any person may sustain by reason of the issuance and recording of the release, pursuant to paragraphs (3) and (4). (7) A beneficiary may, at its discretion, in accordance with the requirements and procedures of Section 2934a, substitute the title company conducting the escrow through which the obligation is satisfied for the trustee of record, in which case the title company assumes the obligation of a trustee under this subdivision, and may collect the fee authorized by subdivision (e). (8) In lieu of delivering the original note and deed of trust to the trustee within 30 days of loan satisfaction, as required by paragraph (1) of subdivision (b), a beneficiary who executes and delivers to the trustee a request for a full reconveyance within 30 days of loan satisfaction may, within 120 days of loan satisfaction, deliver the original note and deed of trust to either the trustee or trustor. If the note and deed of trust are delivered as provided in this paragraph, upon satisfaction of the note and deed of trust, the note and deed of trust shall be altered to indicate that the obligation is paid in full. Nothing in this paragraph alters the requirements and obligations set forth in paragraphs (2) and (3). (c) For the purposes of this section, the phrases "cause to be recorded" and "cause it to be recorded" include, but are not limited to, sending by certified mail with the United States Postal Service or by an independent courier service using its tracking service that provides documentation of receipt and delivery, including the signature of the recipient, the full reconveyance or certificate of discharge in a recordable form, together with payment for all required fees, in an envelope addressed to the county recorder's office of the county in which the deed of trust or mortgage is recorded. Within two business days from the day of receipt, if received in recordable form together with all required fees, the county recorder shall stamp and record the full reconveyance or certificate of discharge. Compliance with this subdivision shall entitle the trustee to the benefit of the presumption found in Section 641 of the Evidence Code. (d) The violation of this section shall make the violator liable to the person affected by the violation for all damages which that person may sustain by reason of the violation, and shall require that the violator forfeit to that person the sum of five hundred dollars ($500). (e) (1) The trustee, beneficiary, or mortgagee may charge a reasonable fee to the trustor or mortgagor, or the owner of the land, as the case may be, for all services involved in the preparation, execution, and recordation of the full reconveyance, including, but not limited to, document preparation and forwarding services rendered to effect the full reconveyance, and, in addition, may collect official fees. This fee may be made payable no earlier than the opening of a bona fide escrow or no more than 60 days prior to the full satisfaction of the obligation secured by the deed of trust or mortgage. (2) If the fee charged pursuant to this subdivision does not exceed forty-five dollars ($45), the fee is conclusively presumed to be reasonable. (3) The fee described in paragraph (1) may not be charged unless demand for the fee was included in the payoff demand statement described in Section 2943. (f) For purposes of this section, "original" may include an optically imaged reproduction when the following requirements are met: (1) The trustee receiving the request for reconveyance and executing the reconveyance as provided in subdivision (b) is an affiliate or subsidiary of the beneficiary or an affiliate or subsidiary of the assignee of the beneficiary, respectively. (2) The optical image storage media used to store the document shall be nonerasable write once, read many (WORM) optical image media that does not allow changes to the stored document. (3) The optical image reproduction shall be made consistent with the minimum standards of quality approved by either the National Institute of Standards and Technology or the Association for Information and Image Management. (4) Written authentication identifying the optical image reproduction as an unaltered copy of the note, deed of trust, or mortgage shall be stamped or printed on the optical image reproduction. (g) No fee or charge may be imposed on the trustor in connection with, or relating to, any act described in this section except as expressly authorized by this section. (h) The amendments to this section enacted at the 1999-2000 Regular Session shall apply only to a mortgage or an obligation secured by a deed of trust that is satisfied on or after January 1, 2001. (i) (1) In any action filed before January 1, 2002, that is dismissed as a result of the amendments to this section enacted at the 2001-02 Regular Session, the plaintiff shall not be required to pay the defendant's costs. (2) Any claimant, including a claimant in a class action lawsuit, whose claim is dismissed or barred as a result of the amendments to this section enacted at the 2001-02 Regular Session, may, within 6 months of the dismissal or barring of the action or claim, file or refile a claim for actual damages occurring before January 1, 2002, that were proximately caused by a time lapse between loan satisfaction and the completion of the beneficiary's obligations as required under paragraph (1) of subdivision (b). In any action brought under this section, the defendant may be found liable for actual damages, but may not be found liable for any civil penalty authorized by Section 2941. (j) Notwithstanding any other penalties, if a beneficiary collects a fee for reconveyance and thereafter has knowledge, or should have knowledge, that no reconveyance has been recorded, the beneficiary shall cause to be recorded the reconveyance, or in the event a release of obligation is earlier and timely recorded, the beneficiary shall refund to the trustor the fee charged to perform the reconveyance. Evidence of knowledge includes, but is not limited to, notice of a release of obligation pursuant to paragraph (3) of subdivision (b). 2941.1. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, if no payoff demand statement is issued pursuant to Section 2943, nothing in Section 2941 shall be construed to prohibit the charging of a reconveyance fee. 2941.5. Every person who willfully violates Section 2941 is guilty of a misdemeanor punishable by fine of not less than fifty dollars ($50) nor more than four hundred dollars ($400), or by imprisonment in the county jail for not to exceed six months, or by both such fine and imprisonment. For purposes of this section, "willfully" means simply a purpose or willingness to commit the act, or make the omission referred to. It does not require an intent to violate the law, to injure another, or to acquire any advantage. 2941.7. Whenever the obligation secured by a mortgage or deed of trust has been fully satisfied and the present mortgagee or beneficiary of record cannot be located after diligent search, or refuses to execute and deliver a proper certificate of discharge or request for reconveyance, or whenever a specified balance, including principal and interest, remains due and the mortgagor or trustor or the mortgagor's or trustor's successor in interest cannot, after diligent search, locate the then mortgagee or beneficiary of record, the lien of any mortgage or deed of trust shall be released when the mortgagor or trustor or the mortgagor's or trustor's successor in interest records or causes to be recorded, in the office of the county recorder of the county in which the encumbered property is located, a corporate bond accompanied by a declaration, as specified in subdivision (b), and with respect to a deed of trust, a reconveyance as hereinafter provided. (a) The bond shall be acceptable to the trustee and shall be issued by a corporation lawfully authorized to issue surety bonds in the State of California in a sum equal to the greater of either (1) two times the amount of the original obligation secured by the mortgage or deed of trust and any additional principal amounts, including advances, shown in any recorded amendment thereto, or (2) one-half of the total amount computed pursuant to (1) and any accrued interest on such amount, and shall be conditioned for payment of any sum which the mortgagee or beneficiary may recover in an action on the obligation secured by the mortgage or deed of trust, with costs of suit and reasonable attorneys' fees. The obligees under the bond shall be the mortgagee or mortgagee's successor in interest or the trustee who executes a reconveyance under this section and the beneficiary or beneficiary's successor in interest. The bond recorded by the mortgagor or trustor or mortgagor's or trustor's successor in interest shall contain the following information describing the mortgage or deed of trust: (1) Recording date and instrument number or book and page number of the recorded instrument. (2) Names of original mortgagor and mortgagee or trustor and beneficiary. (3) Amount shown as original principal sum secured thereby. (4) The recording information and new principal amount shown in any recorded amendment thereto. (b) The declaration accompanying the corporate bond recorded by the mortgagor or trustor or the mortgagor's or trustor's successor in interest shall state: (1) That it is recorded pursuant to this section. (2) The name of the original mortgagor or trustor and mortgagee or beneficiary. (3) The name and address of the person making the declaration. (4) That either the obligation secured by the mortgage or deed of trust has been fully satisfied and the present mortgagee or beneficiary of record cannot be located after diligent search, or refuses to execute and deliver a proper certificate of discharge or request for reconveyance as required under Section 2941; or that a specified balance, including principal and interest, remains due and the mortgagor or trustor or mortgagor's or trustor's successor in interest cannot, after diligent search, locate the then mortgagee or beneficiary. (5) That the declarant has mailed by certified mail, return receipt requested, to the last address of the person to whom payments under the mortgage or deed of trust were made and to the last mortgagee or beneficiary of record at the address for such mortgagee or beneficiary shown on the instrument creating, assigning, or conveying the interest, a notice of recording a declaration and bond under this section and informing the recipient of the name and address of the mortgagor or trustee, if any, and of the right to record a written objection with respect to the release of the lien of the mortgage or, with respect to a deed of trust, notify the trustee in writing of any objection to the reconveyance of the deed of trust. The declaration shall state the date any notices were mailed pursuant to this section and the names and addresses of all persons to whom mailed. The declaration provided for in this section shall be signed by the mortgagor or trustor under penalty of perjury. (c) With respect to a deed of trust, after the expiration of 30 days following the recording of the corporate bond and accompanying declaration provided in subdivisions (a) and (b), and delivery to the trustee of the usual reconveyance fees plus costs and a demand for reconveyance under this section, the trustee shall execute and record, or otherwise deliver as provided in Section 2941, a reconveyance in the same form as if the beneficiary had delivered to the trustee a proper request for reconveyance, provided that the trustee has not received a written objection to the reconveyance from the beneficiary of record. No trustee shall have any liability to any person by reason of its execution of a reconveyance in reliance upon a trustor's or trustor's successor's in interest substantial compliance with this section. The sole remedy of any person damaged by reason of the reconveyance shall be against the trustor, the affiant, or the bond. With respect to a mortgage, a mortgage shall be satisfied of record when 30 days have expired following recordation of the corporate bond and accompanying declaration, provided no objection to satisfaction has been recorded by the mortgagee within that period. A bona fide purchaser or encumbrancer for value shall take the interest conveyed free of such mortgage, provided there has been compliance with subdivisions (a) and (b) and the deed to the purchaser recites that no objections by the mortgagee have been recorded. Upon recording of a reconveyance under this section, or, in the case of a mortgage the expiration of 30 days following recordation of the corporate bond and accompanying declaration without objection thereto having been recorded, interest shall no longer accrue as to any balance remaining due to the extent the balance due has been alleged in the declaration recorded under subdivision (b). The sum of any specified balance, including principal and interest, which remains due and which is remitted to any issuer of a corporate bond in conjunction with the issuance of a bond pursuant to this section shall, if unclaimed, escheat to the state after three years pursuant to the Unclaimed Property Law. From the date of escheat the issuer of the bond shall be relieved of any liability to pay to the beneficiary or his or her heirs or other successors in interest the escheated funds and the sole remedy shall be a claim for property paid or delivered to the Controller pursuant to the Unclaimed Property Law. (d) The term "diligent search," as used in this section, shall mean all of the following: (1) The mailing of notices as provided in paragraph (5) of subdivision (b), and to any other address that the declarant has used to correspond with or contact the mortgagee or beneficiary. (2) A check of the telephone directory in the city where the mortgagee or beneficiary maintained the mortgagee's or beneficiary's last known address or place of business. (3) In the event the mortgagee or beneficiary or the mortgagee's or beneficiary's successor in interest is a corporation, a check of the records of the California Secretary of State and the secretary of state in the state of incorporation, if known. (4) In the event the mortgagee or beneficiary is a state or national bank or a state or federal savings and loan association, an inquiry of the regulatory authority of such bank or savings and loan association. (e) This section shall not be deemed to create an exclusive procedure for the issuance of reconveyances and the issuance of bonds and declarations to release the lien of a mortgage and shall not affect any other procedures, whether or not such procedures are set forth in statute, for the issuance of reconveyances and the issuance of bonds and declarations to release the lien of a mortgage. (f) For purposes of this section, the trustor or trustor's successor in interest may substitute the present trustee of record without conferring any duties upon the trustee other than those that are incidental to the execution of a reconveyance pursuant to this section if all of the following requirements are met: (1) The present trustee of record and the present mortgagee or beneficiary of record cannot be located after diligent search. (2) The declaration filed pursuant to subdivision (b) shall state in addition that it is filed pursuant to this subdivision, and shall, in lieu of the provisions of paragraph (4) of subdivision (b), state that the obligation secured by the mortgage or deed of trust has been fully satisfied and the present trustee of record and present mortgagee or beneficiary of record cannot be located after diligent search. (3) The substitute trustee is a title insurance company that agrees to accept the substitution. This subdivision shall not impose a duty upon a title insurance company to accept the substitution. (4) The corporate bond required in subdivision (a) is for a period of five or more years. 2941.9. (a) The purpose of this section is to establish a process through which all of the beneficiaries under a trust deed may agree to be governed by beneficiaries holding more than 50 percent of the record beneficial interest of a series of notes secured by the same real property or of undivided interests in a note secured by real property equivalent to a series transaction, exclusive of any notes or interests of a licensed real estate broker that is the issuer or servicer of the notes or interests or any affiliate of that licensed real estate broker. (b) All holders of notes secured by the same real property or a series of undivided interests in notes secured by real property equivalent to a series transaction may agree in writing to be governed by the desires of the holders of more than 50 percent of the record beneficial interest of those notes or interests, exclusive of any notes or interests of a licensed real estate broker that is the issuer or servicer of the notes or interests of any affiliate of the licensed real estate broker, with respect to actions to be taken on behalf of all holders in the event of default or foreclosure for matters that require direction or approval of the holders, including designation of the broker, servicing agent, or other person acting on their behalf, and the sale, encumbrance, or lease of real property owned by the holders resulting from foreclosure or receipt of a deed in lieu of foreclosure. (c) A description of the agreement authorized in subdivision (b) of this section shall be disclosed pursuant to Section 10232.5 of the Business and Professions Code and shall be included in a recorded document such as the deed of trust or the assignment of interests. (d) Any action taken pursuant to the authority granted in this section is not effective unless all the parties agreeing to the action sign, under penalty of perjury, a separate written document entitled "Majority Action Affidavit" stating the following: (1) The action has been authorized pursuant to this section. (2) None of the undersigned is a licensed real estate broker or an affiliate of the broker that is the issuer or servicer of the obligation secured by the deed of trust. (3) The undersigned together hold more than 50 percent of the record beneficial interest of a series of notes secured by the same real property or of undivided interests in a note secured by real property equivalent to a series transaction. (4) Notice of the action was sent by certified mail, postage prepaid, with return receipt requested, to each holder of an interest in the obligation secured by the deed of trust who has not joined in the execution of the substitution or this document. This document shall be recorded in the office of the county recorder of each county in which the real property described in the deed of trust is located. Once the document in this subdivision is recorded, it shall constitute conclusive evidence of compliance with the requirements of this subdivision in favor of trustees acting pursuant to this section, substituted trustees acting pursuant to Section 2934a, subsequent assignees of the obligation secured by the deed of trust, and subsequent bona fide purchasers or encumbrancers for value of the real property described therein. (e) For purposes of this section, "affiliate of the licensed real estate broker" includes any person as defined in Section 25013 of the Corporations Code who is controlled by, or is under common control with, or who controls, a licensed real estate broker. "Control" means the possession, direct or indirect, of the power to direct or cause the direction of management and policies. 2942. Contracts of bottomry or respondentia, although in the nature of mortgages, are not affected by any of the provisions of this Chapter. 2943. (a) As used in this section: (1) "Beneficiary" means a mortgagee or beneficiary of a mortgage or deed of trust, or his or her assignees. (2) "Beneficiary statement" means a written statement showing: (A) The amount of the unpaid balance of the obligation secured by the mortgage or deed of trust and the interest rate, together with the total amounts, if any, of all overdue installments of either principal or interest, or both. (B) The amounts of periodic payments, if any. (C) The date on which the obligation is due in whole or in part. (D) The date to which real estate taxes and special assessments have been paid to the extent the information is known to the beneficiary. (E) The amount of hazard insurance in effect and the term and premium of that insurance to the extent the information is known to the beneficiary. (F) The amount in an account, if any, maintained for the accumulation of funds with which to pay taxes and insurance premiums. (G) The nature and, if known, the amount of any additional charges, costs, or expenses paid or incurred by the beneficiary which have become a lien on the real property involved. (H) Whether the obligation secured by the mortgage or deed of trust can or may be transferred to a new borrower. (3) "Delivery" means depositing or causing to be deposited in the United States mail an envelope with postage prepaid, containing a copy of the document to be delivered, addressed to the person whose name and address is set forth in the demand therefor. The document may also be transmitted by facsimile machine to the person whose name and address is set forth in the demand therefor. (4) "Entitled person" means the trustor or mortgagor of, or his or her successor in interest in, the mortgaged or trust property or any part thereof, any beneficiary under a deed of trust, any person having a subordinate lien or encumbrance of record thereon, the escrowholder licensed as an agent pursuant to Division 6 (commencing with Section 17000) of the Financial Code, or the party exempt by virtue of Section 17006 of the Financial Code who is acting as the escrowholder. (5) "Payoff demand statement" means a written statement, prepared in response to a written demand made by an entitled person or authorized agent, setting forth the amounts required as of the date of preparation by the beneficiary, to fully satisfy all obligations secured by the loan that is the subject of the payoff demand statement. The written statement shall include information reasonably necessary to calculate the payoff amount on a per diem basis for the period of time, not to exceed 30 days, during which the per diem amount is not changed by the terms of the note. (6) "Short-pay agreement" means an agreement in writing in which the beneficiary agrees to release its lien on a property in return for payment of an amount less than the secured obligation. (7) "Short-pay demand statement" means a written statement, issued subsequent to and conditioned on the existence of a short-pay agreement that is in possession of the entitled person, that is prepared in response to a written demand made by an entitled person or authorized agent, setting forth an amount less than the outstanding debt, together with any terms and conditions, under which the beneficiary will execute and deliver a reconveyance of the deed of trust securing the note that is the subject of the short-pay demand statement. The period shall not be greater than 30 days from the date of preparation by the beneficiary. (8) "Short-pay request" means a written request made by an entitled person or authorized agent requesting the beneficiary to provide a short-pay demand statement that includes all of the following: (A) A copy of an existing contract to purchase the property for an amount certain. (B) A copy of the short-pay agreement in the possession of the entitled person. (C) Information related to the release of any other liens on the property, if any. (b) (1) A beneficiary, or his or her authorized agent, shall, within 21 days of the receipt of a written demand by an entitled person or his or her authorized agent, prepare and deliver to the person demanding it a true, correct, and complete copy of the note or other evidence of indebtedness with any modification thereto, and a beneficiary statement. (2) A request pursuant to this subdivision may be made by an entitled person or his or her authorized agent at any time before, or within two months after, the recording of a notice of default under a mortgage or deed of trust, or may otherwise be made more than 30 days prior to the entry of the decree of foreclosure. (c) (1) A beneficiary, or his or her authorized agent, shall, on the written demand of an entitled person, or his or her authorized agent, prepare and deliver a payoff demand statement to the person demanding it within 21 days of the receipt of the demand. However, if the loan is subject to a recorded notice of default or a filed complaint commencing a judicial foreclosure, the beneficiary shall have no obligation to prepare and deliver this statement as prescribed unless the written demand is received prior to the first publication of a notice of sale or the notice of the first date of sale established by a court. (2) Except as provided in this subdivision, a beneficiary, or his or her authorized agent, shall, upon receipt of a short-pay request, prepare and deliver a short-pay demand statement to the person requesting it within 21 days of the receipt of the short-pay request. A beneficiary, or his or her authorized agent that elects not to proceed with the transaction that is the subject of the short-pay request may refuse to provide a short-pay demand statement for that transaction, but shall provide a written statement to the person requesting it, indicating that the beneficiary elects not to proceed with the proposed transaction, within 21 days of the receipt of the short-pay request. If the terms and conditions of the short-pay agreement require approval by the beneficiary of a closing statement or similar document prepared by an escrowholder, approval or disapproval shall be provided not more than four days after receipt by the beneficiary of the closing statement, or the closing statement shall be deemed approved, provided that the statement is not clearly contrary to the terms of the short-pay agreement or the short-pay demand statement provided to the escrowholder. (d) (1) A beneficiary statement, payoff demand statement, or short-pay demand statement may be relied upon by the entitled person or his or her authorized agent in accordance with its terms, including with respect to the payoff demand statement or short-pay demand statement reliance for the purpose of establishing the amount necessary to pay the obligation in full. If the beneficiary notifies the entitled person or his or her authorized agent of any amendment to the statement, then the amended statement may be relied upon by the entitled person or his or her authorized agent as provided in this subdivision. (2) If notification of any amendment to the statement is not given in writing, then a written amendment to the statement shall be delivered to the entitled person or his or her authorized agent no later than the next business day after notification. (3) Upon the dates specified in subparagraphs (A) and (B), any sums that were due and for any reason not included in the statement or amended statement shall continue to be recoverable by the beneficiary as an unsecured obligation of the obligor pursuant to the terms of the note and existing provisions of law. (A) If the transaction is voluntary, the entitled party or his or her authorized agent may rely upon the statement or amended statement upon the earlier of (i) the close of escrow, (ii) transfer of title, or (iii) recordation of a lien. (B) If the loan is subject to a recorded notice of default or a filed complaint commencing a judicial foreclosure, the entitled party or his or her authorized agent may rely upon the statement or amended statement upon the acceptance of the last and highest bid at a trustee's sale or a court supervised sale. (e) The following provisions apply to a demand for either a beneficiary statement, a payoff demand statement, or a short-pay demand statement: (1) If an entitled person or his or her authorized agent requests a statement pursuant to this section and does not specify a beneficiary statement, a payoff demand statement, or short-pay demand statement the beneficiary shall treat the request as a request for a payoff demand statement. (2) If the entitled person or the entitled person's authorized agent includes in the written demand a specific request for a copy of the deed of trust or mortgage, it shall be furnished with the written statement at no additional charge. (3) The beneficiary may, before delivering a statement, require reasonable proof that the person making the demand is, in fact, an entitled person or an authorized agent of an entitled person, in which event the beneficiary shall not be subject to the penalties of this section until 21 days after receipt of the proof herein provided for. A statement in writing signed by the entitled person appointing an authorized agent when delivered personally to the beneficiary or delivered by registered return receipt mail shall constitute reasonable proof as to the identity of an agent. Similar delivery of a policy of title insurance, preliminary report issued by a title company, original or photographic copy of a grant deed or certified copy of letters testamentary, guardianship, or conservatorship shall constitute reasonable proof as to the identity of a successor in interest, provided the person demanding a statement is named as successor in interest in the document. (4) If a beneficiary for a period of 21 days after receipt of the written demand willfully fails to prepare and deliver the statement, he or she is liable to the entitled person for all damages which he or she may sustain by reason of the refusal and, whether or not actual damages are sustained, he or she shall forfeit to the entitled person the sum of three hundred dollars ($300). Each failure to prepare and deliver the statement, occurring at a time when, pursuant to this section, the beneficiary is required to prepare and deliver the statement, creates a separate cause of action, but a judgment awarding an entitled person a forfeiture, or damages and forfeiture, for any failure to prepare and deliver a statement bars recovery of damages and forfeiture for any other failure to prepare and deliver a statement, with respect to the same obligation, in compliance with a demand therefor made within six months before or after the demand as to which the award was made. For the purposes of this subdivision, "willfully" means an intentional failure to comply with the requirements of this section without just cause or excuse. (5) If the beneficiary has more than one branch, office, or other place of business, then the demand shall be made to the branch or office address set forth in the payment billing notice or payment book, and the statement, unless it specifies otherwise, shall be deemed to apply only to the unpaid balance of the single obligation named in the request and secured by the mortgage or deed of trust which is payable at the branch or office whose address appears on the aforesaid billing notice or payment book. (6) The beneficiary may make a charge not to exceed thirty dollars ($30) for furnishing each required statement. The provisions of this paragraph shall not apply to mortgages or deeds of trust insured by the Federal Housing Administrator or guaranteed by the Administrator of Veterans Affairs. (f) The preparation and delivery of a beneficiary statement, a payoff demand statement, or short-pay demand statement pursuant to this section shall not change a date of sale established pursuant to Section 2924g. (g) This section shall remain in effect only until January 1, 2014, and as of that date is repealed, unless a later enacted statute, that is enacted before January 1, 2014, deletes or extends that date. 2943. (a) As used in this section: (1) "Beneficiary" means a mortgagee or beneficiary of a mortgage or deed of trust, or his or her assignees. (2) "Beneficiary statement" means a written statement showing: (A) The amount of the unpaid balance of the obligation secured by the mortgage or deed of trust and the interest rate, together with the total amounts, if any, of all overdue installments of either principal or interest, or both. (B) The amounts of periodic payments, if any. (C) The date on which the obligation is due in whole or in part. (D) The date to which real estate taxes and special assessments have been paid to the extent the information is known to the beneficiary. (E) The amount of hazard insurance in effect and the term and premium of that insurance to the extent the information is known to the beneficiary. (F) The amount in an account, if any, maintained for the accumulation of funds with which to pay taxes and insurance premiums. (G) The nature and, if known, the amount of any additional charges, costs, or expenses paid or incurred by the beneficiary which have become a lien on the real property involved. (H) Whether the obligation secured by the mortgage or deed of trust can or may be transferred to a new borrower. (3) "Delivery" means depositing or causing to be deposited in the United States mail an envelope with postage prepaid, containing a copy of the document to be delivered, addressed to the person whose name and address is set forth in the demand therefor. The document may also be transmitted by facsimile machine to the person whose name and address is set forth in the demand therefor. (4) "Entitled person" means the trustor or mortgagor of, or his or her successor in interest in, the mortgaged or trust property or any part thereof, any beneficiary under a deed of trust, any person having a subordinate lien or encumbrance of record thereon, the escrowholder licensed as an agent pursuant to Division 6 (commencing with Section 17000) of the Financial Code, or the party exempt by virtue of Section 17006 of the Financial Code who is acting as the escrowholder. (5) "Payoff demand statement" means a written statement, prepared in response to a written demand made by an entitled person or authorized agent, setting forth the amounts required as of the date of preparation by the beneficiary, to fully satisfy all obligations secured by the loan that is the subject of the payoff demand statement. The written statement shall include information reasonably necessary to calculate the payoff amount on a per diem basis for the period of time, not to exceed 30 days, during which the per diem amount is not changed by the terms of the note. (b) (1) A beneficiary, or his or her authorized agent, shall, within 21 days of the receipt of a written demand by an entitled person or his or her authorized agent, prepare and deliver to the person demanding it a true, correct, and complete copy of the note or other evidence of indebtedness with any modification thereto, and a beneficiary statement. (2) A request pursuant to this subdivision may be made by an entitled person or his or her authorized agent at any time before, or within two months after, the recording of a notice of default under a mortgage or deed of trust, or may otherwise be made more than 30 days prior to the entry of the decree of foreclosure. (c) A beneficiary, or his or her authorized agent, shall, on the written demand of an entitled person, or his or her authorized agent, prepare and deliver a payoff demand statement to the person demanding it within 21 days of the receipt of the demand. However, if the loan is subject to a recorded notice of default or a filed complaint commencing a judicial foreclosure, the beneficiary shall have no obligation to prepare and deliver this statement as prescribed unless the written demand is received prior to the first publication of a notice of sale or the notice of the first date of sale established by a court. (d) (1) A beneficiary statement or payoff demand statement may be relied upon by the entitled person or his or her authorized agent in accordance with its terms, including with respect to the payoff demand statement reliance for the purpose of establishing the amount necessary to pay the obligation in full. If the beneficiary notifies the entitled person or his or her authorized agent of any amendment to the statement, then the amended statement may be relied upon by the entitled person or his or her authorized agent as provided in this subdivision. (2) If notification of any amendment to the statement is not given in writing, then a written amendment to the statement shall be delivered to the entitled person or his or her authorized agent no later than the next business day after notification. (3) Upon the dates specified in subparagraphs (A) and (B) any sums that were due and for any reason not included in the statement or amended statement shall continue to be recoverable by the beneficiary as an unsecured obligation of the obligor pursuant to the terms of the note and existing provisions of law. (A) If the transaction is voluntary, the entitled party or his or her authorized agent may rely upon the statement or amended statement upon the earlier of (i) the close of escrow, (ii) transfer of title, or (iii) recordation of a lien. (B) If the loan is subject to a recorded notice of default or a filed complaint commencing a judicial foreclosure, the entitled party or his or her authorized agent may rely upon the statement or amended statement upon the acceptance of the last and highest bid at a trustee's sale or a court supervised sale. (e) The following provisions apply to a demand for either a beneficiary statement or a payoff demand statement: (1) If an entitled person or his or her authorized agent requests a statement pursuant to this section and does not specify a beneficiary statement or a payoff demand statement the beneficiary shall treat the request as a request for a payoff demand statement. (2) If the entitled person or the entitled person's authorized agent includes in the written demand a specific request for a copy of the deed of trust or mortgage, it shall be furnished with the written statement at no additional charge. (3) The beneficiary may, before delivering a statement, require reasonable proof that the person making the demand is, in fact, an entitled person or an authorized agent of an entitled person, in which event the beneficiary shall not be subject to the penalties of this section until 21 days after receipt of the proof herein provided for. A statement in writing signed by the entitled person appointing an authorized agent when delivered personally to the beneficiary or delivered by registered return receipt mail shall constitute reasonable proof as to the identity of an agent. Similar delivery of a policy of title insurance, preliminary report issued by a title company, original or photographic copy of a grant deed or certified copy of letters testamentary, guardianship, or conservatorship shall constitute reasonable proof as to the identity of a successor in interest, provided the person demanding a statement is named as successor in interest in the document. (4) If a beneficiary for a period of 21 days after receipt of the written demand willfully fails to prepare and deliver the statement, he or she is liable to the entitled person for all damages which he or she may sustain by reason of the refusal and, whether or not actual damages are sustained, he or she shall forfeit to the entitled person the sum of three hundred dollars ($300). Each failure to prepare and deliver the statement, occurring at a time when, pursuant to this section, the beneficiary is required to prepare and deliver the statement, creates a separate cause of action, but a judgment awarding an entitled person a forfeiture, or damages and forfeiture, for any failure to prepare and deliver a statement bars recovery of damages and forfeiture for any other failure to prepare and deliver a statement, with respect to the same obligation, in compliance with a demand therefor made within six months before or after the demand as to which the award was made. For the purposes of this subdivision, "willfully" means an intentional failure to comply with the requirements of this section without just cause or excuse. (5) If the beneficiary has more than one branch, office, or other place of business, then the demand shall be made to the branch or office address set forth in the payment billing notice or payment book, and the statement, unless it specifies otherwise, shall be deemed to apply only to the unpaid balance of the single obligation named in the request and secured by the mortgage or deed of trust which is payable at the branch or office whose address appears on the aforesaid billing notice or payment book. (6) The beneficiary may make a charge not to exceed thirty dollars ($30) for furnishing each required statement. The provisions of this paragraph shall not apply to mortgages or deeds of trust insured by the Federal Housing Administrator or guaranteed by the Administrator of Veterans Affairs. (f) The preparation and delivery of a beneficiary statement or a payoff demand statement pursuant to this section shall not change a date of sale established pursuant to Section 2924g. (g) This section shall become operative on January 1, 2014. 2944. None of the provisions of this chapter applies to any transaction or security interest governed by the Commercial Code, except to the extent made applicable by reason of an election made by the secured party pursuant to subparagraph (B) of paragraph (1) of subdivision (a) of Section 9604 of the Commercial Code. 2944.5. No lender, mortgagee, or any third party having an interest in real or personal property shall refuse to accept a policy issued by an admitted insurer solely because the policy is issued for a continuous period without a fixed expiration date even though the policy premium is due and payable every six months, provided the lender, mortgagee, or third party is entitled to receive (a) notice of renewal from the insurer within 15 days of receipt of payment on the policy by the insured or (b) notice of cancellation or nonrenewal under the terms and conditions set forth in Sections 678 and 2074.8 of the Insurance Code, whichever is applicable. 2944.6. (a) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, any person who negotiates, attempts to negotiate, arranges, attempts to arrange, or otherwise offers to perform a mortgage loan modification or other form of mortgage loan forbearance for a fee or other compensation paid by the borrower, shall provide the following to the borrower, as a separate statement, in not less than 14-point bold type, prior to entering into any fee agreement with the borrower: It is not necessary to pay a third party to arrange for a loan modification or other form of forbearance from your mortgage lender or servicer. You may call your lender directly to ask for a change in your loan terms. Nonprofit housing counseling agencies also offer these and other forms of borrower assistance free of charge. A list of nonprofit housing counseling agencies approved by the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) is available from your local HUD office or by visiting www.hud.gov. (b) If loan modification or other mortgage loan forbearance services are offered or negotiated in one of the languages set forth in Section 1632, a translated copy of the statement in subdivision (a) shall be provided to the borrower in that foreign language. (c) A violation of this section by a natural person is a public offense punishable by a fine not exceeding ten thousand dollars ($10,000), by imprisonment in the county jail for a term not to exceed one year, or by both that fine and imprisonment, or if by a business entity, the violation is punishable by a fine not exceeding fifty thousand dollars ($50,000). These penalties are cumulative to any other remedies or penalties provided by law. (d) This section does not apply to a person, or an agent acting on that person's behalf, offering loan modification or other loan forbearance services for a loan owned or serviced by that person. (e) This section shall apply only to mortgages and deeds of trust secured by residential real property containing four or fewer dwelling units. 2944.7. (a) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, it shall be unlawful for any person who negotiates, attempts to negotiate, arranges, attempts to arrange, or otherwise offers to perform a mortgage loan modification or other form of mortgage loan forbearance for a fee or other compensation paid by the borrower, to do any of the following: (1) Claim, demand, charge, collect, or receive any compensation until after the person has fully performed each and every service the person contracted to perform or represented that he or she would perform. (2) Take any wage assignment, any lien of any type on real or personal property, or other security to secure the payment of compensation. (3) Take any power of attorney from the borrower for any purpose. (b) A violation of this section by a natural person is a public offense punishable by a fine not exceeding ten thousand dollars ($10,000), by imprisonment in the county jail for a term not to exceed one year, or by both that fine and imprisonment, or if by a business entity, the violation is punishable by a fine not exceeding fifty thousand dollars ($50,000). These penalties are cumulative to any other remedies or penalties provided by law. (c) Nothing in this section precludes a person, or an agent acting on that person's behalf, who offers loan modification or other loan forbearance services for a loan owned or serviced by that person, from doing any of the following: (1) Collecting principal, interest, or other charges under the terms of a loan, before the loan is modified, including charges to establish a new payment schedule for a nondelinquent loan, after the borrower reduces the unpaid principal balance of that loan for the express purpose of lowering the monthly payment due under the terms of the loan. (2) Collecting principal, interest, or other charges under the terms of a loan, after the loan is modified. (3) Accepting payment from a federal agency in connection with the federal Making Home Affordable Plan or other federal plan intended to help borrowers refinance or modify their loans or otherwise avoid foreclosures. (d) This section shall apply only to mortgages and deeds of trust secured by residential real property containing four or fewer dwelling units. (e) This section shall remain in effect only until January 1, 2013, and as of that date is repealed, unless a later enacted statute, that is enacted before January 1, 2013, deletes or extends that date.


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